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$^{52}$Cr Spinor Condensate$ -- $ A Biaxial or Uniaxial Spin Nematic  [PDF]
Roberto B. Diener,Tin-Lun Ho
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.190405
Abstract: We show that the newly discovered $^{52}$Cr Bose condensate in zero magnetic field can be a spin nematic of the following kind: A "maximum" polar state, a "co-linear" polar state, or a biaxial nematic ferromagnetic state. We also present the phase diagram with a magnetic field in the interaction subspace containing the Chromium condensate. It contains many uniaxial and biaxial spin nematic phases, which often but not always break time reversal symmetry, and can exist with or without spontaneous magnetization.
Resonant dynamics of chromium condensates  [PDF]
Tomasz ?wis?ocki,Jaros?aw H. Bauer,Mariusz Gajda,Miros?aw Brewczyk
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.023622
Abstract: We numerically study the dynamics of a spinor chromium condensate in low magnetic fields. We show that the condensate evolution has a resonant character revealing rich structure of resonances similar to that already discussed in the case of alkali-atoms condensates. This indicates that dipolar resonances occur commonly in the systems of cold atoms. In fact, they have been already observed experimentally. We further simulate two recent experiments with chromium condensates, in which the threshold in spin relaxation and the spontaneous demagnetization phenomena were observed. We demonstrate that both these effects originate in resonant dynamics of chromium condensate.
Magnetic Properties of a Bose-Einstein Condensate  [PDF]
M. V. Simkin,E. G. D. Cohen
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.1528
Abstract: Three hyperfine states of Bose-condensed sodium atoms, recently optically trapped, can be described as a spin-1 Bose gas. We study the behaviour of this system in a magnetic field, and construct the phase diagram, where the temperature of the Bose condensation $T_{BEC}$ increases with magnetic field. In particular the system is ferromagnetic below $T_{BEC}$ and the magnetization is proportional to the condensate fraction in a vanishing magnetic field. Second derivatives of the magnetisation with regard to temperature or magnetic field are discontinuous along the phase boundary.
New Magnetic Excitations in the Spin-Density-Wave of Chromium  [PDF]
H. Hiraka,P. Boni,Y. Endoh,M. Fujita,K. Yamada,G. Shirane
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.67.064423
Abstract: Low-energy magnetic excitations of chromium have been reinvestigated with a single-Q crystal using neutron scattering technique. In the transverse spin-density-wave phase a new type of well-defined magnetic excitation is found around (0,0,1) with a weak dispersion perpendicular to the wavevector of the incommensurate structure. The magnetic excitation has an energy gap of E ~ 4 meV and at (0,0,1) exactly corresponds to the Fincher mode previously studied only along the incommensurate wavevector.
Spin-3 Chromium Bose-Einstein Condensates  [PDF]
L. Santos,T. Pfau
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.190404
Abstract: We analyze the physics of spin-3 Bose-Einstein condensates, and in particular the new physics expected in on-going experiments with condensates of Chromium atoms. We first discuss the ground-state properties, which, depending on still unknown Chromium parameters, and for low magnetic fields can present various types of phases. We also discuss the spinor-dynamics in Chromium spinor condensates, which present significant qualitative differences when compared to other spinor condensates. In particular, dipole-induced spin relaxation may lead for low magnetic fields to transfer of spin into angular momentum similar to the well-known Einstein-de Haas effect. Additionally, a rapid large transference of population between distant magnetic states becomes also possible.
Ground states of spin-3 Bose-Einstein condensates for conserved magnetization  [PDF]
Harri M?kel?,Kalle-Antti Suominen
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.033610
Abstract: We calculate the ground states and ground state phase diagrams of Bose-Einstein condensates of spin-3 atoms under the assumption of conserved magnetization. We especially concentrate on the ground states of a chromium condensate. In chromium the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction enables magnetization changing collisions, but in a strong magnetic field these are suppressed. In the calculation of the phase diagrams we neglect the contribution from the dipole-dipole interaction, but discuss its effects at the end of the paper. We show that the ground state of a chromium condensate does not seem to depend on whether or not the dipole-dipole interaction is taken into attention.
Dynamics of spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields  [PDF]
Ping Zhang,C. K. Chan,Xiang-Gui Li,Qi-Kun Xue,Xian-Geng Zhao
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.043606
Abstract: Dynamic response of the F=2 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) under the influence of external magnetic fields is studied. A general formula is given for the oscillation period to describe population transfer from the initial polar state to other spin states. We show that when the frequency and the reduced amplitude of the longitudinal magnetic field are related in a specific manner, the population of the initial spin-0 state will be dynamically localized during time evolution. The effects of external noise and nonlinear spin exchange interaction on the dynamics of the spinor BEC are studied. We show that while the external noise may eventually destroy the Rabi oscillations and dynamic spin localization, these coherent phenomena are robust against the nonlinear atomic interaction.
Bose-Einstein condensation of chromium  [PDF]
Axel Griesmaier,J?rg Werner,Sven Hensler,Jürgen Stuhler,Tilman Pfau
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160401
Abstract: We report on the generation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a gas of chromium atoms, which will make studies of the effects of anisotropic long-range interactions in degenerate quantum gases possible. The preparation of the chromium condensate requires novel cooling strategies that are adapted to its special electronic and magnetic properties. The final step to reach quantum degeneracy is forced evaporative cooling of 52Cr atoms within a crossed optical dipole trap. At a critical temperature of T~700nK, we observe Bose-Einstein condensation by the appearance of a two-component velocity distribution. Released from an anisotropic trap, the condensate expands with an inversion of the aspect ratio. We observe critical behavior of the condensate fraction as a function of temperature and more than 50,000 condensed 52Cr atoms.
Localizing spin dynamics in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate via magnetic pulses  [PDF]
Huanbin Li,Zhengguo Pu,M. S. Chapman,Wenxian Zhang
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.013630
Abstract: Spin exchange interaction between atoms in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate causes atomic spin evolving periodically under the single spatial mode approximation in the mean field theory. By applying fast magnetic pulses according to a two-step or a four-step control protocol, we find analytically that the spin dynamics is significantly suppressed for an arbitrary initial state. Numerical calculations under single mode approximation are carried out to confirm the validity and robustness of these protocols. This localization method can be readily utilized to improve the sensitivity of a magnetometer based on spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates.
Magnetic properties of frustrated spin ladder  [PDF]
Toru Sakai,Nobuhisa Okazaki
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.372558
Abstract: The magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic spin ladder with the next-nearest neighbor interaction, particularly under external field, are investigated by the exact diagonalization of the finite clusters and size scaling techniques. It is found that there exist two phases, the rung-dimer and rung-triplet phases, not only in the nonmagnetic ground state but also magnetized one, where the phase boundary has a small magnetization dependence. Only in the former phase, the magnetization curve is revealed to have a possible plateau at half the saturation moment, with a sufficient frustration.
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