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Controlled Administration of Penicillamine Reduces Radiation Exposure in Critical Organs during 64Cu-ATSM Internal Radiotherapy: A Novel Strategy for Liver Protection  [PDF]
Yukie Yoshii, Hiroki Matsumoto, Mitsuyoshi Yoshimoto, Takako Furukawa, Yukie Morokoshi, Chizuru Sogawa, Ming-Rong Zhang, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Hiroshi Yoshii, Yasuhisa Fujibayashi, Tsuneo Saga
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086996
Abstract: Purpose 64Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM) is a promising theranostic agent that targets hypoxic regions in tumors related to malignant characteristics. Its diagnostic usefulness has been recognized in clinical studies. Internal radiotherapy (IRT) with 64Cu-ATSM is reportedly effective in preclinical studies; however, for clinical applications, improvements to reduce radiation exposure in non-target organs, particularly the liver, are required. We developed a strategy to reduce radiation doses to critical organs while preserving tumor radiation doses by controlled administration of copper chelator penicillamine during 64Cu-ATSM IRT. Methods Biodistribution was evaluated in HT-29 tumor-bearing mice injected with 64Cu-ATSM (185 kBq) with or without oral penicillamine administration. The appropriate injection interval between 64Cu-ATSM and penicillamine was determined. Then, the optimal penicillamine administration schedule was selected from single (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) and fractionated doses (100 mg/kg×3 at 1- or 2-h intervals from 1 h after 64Cu-ATSM injection). PET imaging was performed to confirm the effect of penicillamine with a therapeutic 64Cu-ATSM dose (37 MBq). Dosimetry analysis was performed to estimate human absorbed doses. Results Penicillamine reduced 64Cu accumulation in the liver and small intestine. Tumor uptake was not affected by penicillamine administration at 1 h after 64Cu-ATSM injection, when radioactivity was almost cleared from the blood and tumor uptake had plateaued. Of the single doses, 300 mg/kg was most effective. Fractionated administration at 2-h intervals further decreased liver accumulation at later time points. PET indicated that penicillamine acts similarly with the therapeutic 64Cu-ATSM dose. Dosimetry demonstrated that appropriately scheduled penicillamine administration reduced radiation doses to critical organs (liver, ovaries, and red marrow) below tolerance levels. Laxatives reduced radiation doses to the large intestine. Conclusions We developed a novel strategy to reduce radiation exposure in critical organs during 64Cu-ATSM IRT, thus promoting its clinical applications. This method could be beneficial for other 64Cu-labeled compounds.
RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN
R. Abedinzadih,H. Parnianpour
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 1980,
Abstract: This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I) and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D) is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development and regulatory activity. The organization and the program of the R P D with an emphasis on the problems and achievements are described in this paper. The Iranian Radiation Protection Society and it's cooperation with the R P D for the dissemination of information and support for the educational institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging to embark on a nuclear development have to start much earlier with a major educational and training activity for the personnel in radiological safety as well as other relevant fields.
Radiation protection at CERN  [PDF]
Doris Forkel-Wirth,Stefan Roesler,Marco Silari,Marilena Streit-Bianchi,Christian Theis,Heinz Vincke,Helmut Vincke
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.5170/CERN-2013-001.415
Abstract: This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.
IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture
Natalia Golnik, Piotr Tulik
Polish Journal of Medical Physics And Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10013-011-0001-8
Abstract: The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.
White paper on radiation protection by the European Society of Radiology
Insights into Imaging , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13244-011-0108-1
Abstract: In the past decade, the medical effective dose per caput has increased in most European countries because of CT; it now ranges between 0.4 and 2 mSv/year. The biological impact of diagnostic imaging exposure is dominated by stochastic effects: based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis, the risk of cancer induction is estimated to increase proportionally to organ dose, reaching around 0.5% at an effective dose of 100 mSv. The risk is higher the younger the age at the time of exposure, it is different for different organs, and women are more susceptible than men. Fluoroscopy-based imaging, above all intervention, may reach the dose threshold for deterministic effects, observed most often at the skin above around 3 Gy, and it is also the major source of occupational exposure in radiology. This white paper discusses the role of justification, evidence-based referral guidelines, optimization, diagnostic reference levels, clinical audits and quality assurance programs. The ESR strongly supports education and training of the medical staff involved in imaging by ionizing radiation. It disseminates information regarding radiation protection, takes initiatives, cooperates with partners and supports projects in justification as well as optimization. To reach these aims, the ESR cooperates with other organizations involved in radiation protection.
Umbrella with Ultraviolet Radiation Protection  [PDF]
Kasama Vejakupta, Montree Udompataikul
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.44031
Abstract:

Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes harm to the eye and skin in human. There are many ways to protect one from UVR. Umbrella is widely used due to its convenience as well as its ability to protect one from rain. However, there are limited numbers of studies on UVR protection of different types of umbrellas. Objective of study: To determine UVR protection efficacy of different umbrella designs. Methods: The experimental study was performed on five sunny days. Six manikins were placed in an open area, five of which were equipped with five different types of black canopy umbrellas. One manikin was placed without an umbrella as a control sample. Polysulfone film badges were attached in six different areas in each manikin for measuring the UVR from 10 am - 3 pm Results: All types of umbrellas provides 64.5% - 92.3% UVR photo protection efficacy. An umbrella with UV-filter coating on the inner surface provides maximum UVR photo protection efficacy. However, UVR proto protection efficacies of an umbrella with UV-filter coating on the inner surface and one with UV-filter coating on the outer surface and one without UV-filter coating are not statistically significant (p-value = 0.37). Umbrellas with a diameter of 122 cm and 152 cm provide comparable UVR photo protection efficacy while an umbrella with a diameter of 112 cm provides the least UVR photo protection efficacy. However, UVR photo protection efficacies of umbrellas with different diameter are not statistically significant (p-value = 0.36). The area of the body that received the most UVR photo protection is the forehead which is statistically significant when compared with other areas of the body (p-value < 0.001). The areas of the body that received the least UVR photo protection are the left ear and the back of the neck, which are statistically significant when compared with other areas of the body (p-value < 0.001). Conclusion: All types of umbrellas provide UVR photo protection efficacy. The study shows that umbrellas with different canvas material including both the UV-filter coating and different diameter of umbrellas could effectively protect the user from UVR without significant group difference in this study.

Data Protection Online: Alternative Approaches to Sensitive Data?
Rebecca Wong
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The paper aims to review the criterion of “sensitive data” under Art. 8 of the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC (DPD) in the online environment. Sensitive data is defined under Art. 8 as ‘personal data revealing racial origin, political opinions or religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, and the processing of data concerning health or sex life.’ Following the Lindqvist case (C-101-01), it is questionable how the criterion applies in practice. More specifically, it can be contended that any images/photographs of the data subject uploaded on the internet falls within Art. 8 of the DPD because the image/picture reveals some of the characteristics that may be regarded as sensitive data. The paper also takes account of Professor Simitis’s report entitled Revisiting sensitive data published in 1999, which examined whether "sensitivity" really was a valid criterion for determining the conditions of the processing in the context of the Council of Europe Convention on Personal Data. In this review, the paper calls for a change in how sensitive data is assessed. It considers the purpose-based and contextualised approach to sensitive personal data in the online environment.
Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals
F. Amirzadeh,S.H.R. Tabatabaie
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employees and to select the samples. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyses were performed by EPI6 software. Results: The employee’s awareness about protection in the radiation room was 70%, about application of film badge was more than 85%. The employee’s awareness of periodic inspection of atomic energy organization expert was 54% and their knowledge of long term and short term radiation effects were 98% and 95%, respectively. There was a meaningful relation concerning the level of education and awareness of the employees about MPD or principles of radiation protection (P<0.0007 and P<0.003 respectively). Conclusion: Our results reveal that the employees have acceptable knowledge about the use of film badges, however, they lack enough awareness concerning other issues of radiation protection. Proper and periodic educational courses for radiation workers are mandatory.
Determination of the need for solar UV radiation protection
Leti? Milorad
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1012752l
Abstract: Introduction. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, the eyes and the immune system are well known. The need for UV radiation protection is popularized by the introduction of UV index. Uneven intensity of UV radiation in different regions in different periods of the year and in different times of the day requires that recommendations for UV radiation protection are given for possible UV index values in those regions. Objective. The aim of the study is to establish a simple and consistent method for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection in Serbia where UV radiation intensity can be approximated as uniform. Methods. Possible values of UV index during the year and the sun elevation during the day in periods throughout the year were used for the determination of maximal possible UV index values. These values were compared to UV index forecasts regarding UV radiation protection. Results. Maximal possible values for UV index were used for producing the colour graph. Colours on the graph indicate the need for UV radiation protection. Green - protection is not needed, yellow - protection is needed, red - protection is obligatory. Comparisons with the need for protection based on forecasts showed congruence in 97% of cases. Conclusion. The use of the graph for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection gives nearly the same results as recommendations based on UV index forecasts. The advantages of the graph are that it gives recommendations for the whole year, for the time intervals during the day in every period of the year and for the whole territory of Serbia.
Ethical Consideration in Radiation Protection- Past, Present and Future
Ali Shabestani Monfared,Mehrangiz Amiri
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Since discovery of X and Gamma rays, the social status of ionizing radiation has oscillated between enthusiastic acceptance and rejection. Nowadays, great concern exists regarding the safety of radiation, radioactive materials, nuclear waste and the health of workers in the radiation medicine departments. However, there are reports indicating that radiation is beneficial not only in high doses applied for the treatment of malignant tumors, but also in small doses used in diagnostics. Some others even believe that ionizing radiation may be essential for life. This paper addresses the historical reviews of radiation protection as well as ethical concepts and wants to ask that how dangerous is ionizing radiation and try to give a straight answer to this simple question.
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