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First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV  [PDF]
Super-Kamiokande Collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with $\beta$ decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande-IV in order to determine the production rates of $^{12}$B, $^{12}$N, $^{16}$N, $^{11}$Be, $^9$Li, $^8$He, $^9$C, $^8$Li, $^8$B and $^{15}$C. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter $\beta$'s by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since $^9$Li can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a $\beta + n$ cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this $^9$Li measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes $^8$Li/$^8$B and $^9$Li.
Measuring the Cosmic Ray Muon-Induced Fast Neutron Spectrum by (n,p) Isotope Production Reactions in Underground Detectors  [PDF]
Cristiano Galbiati,John. F. Beacom
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.73.049906
Abstract: While cosmic ray muons themselves are relatively easy to veto in underground detectors, their interactions with nuclei create more insidious backgrounds via: (i) the decays of long-lived isotopes produced by muon-induced spallation reactions inside the detector, (ii) spallation reactions initiated by fast muon-induced neutrons entering from outside the detector, and (iii) nuclear recoils initiated by fast muon-induced neutrons entering from outside the detector. These backgrounds, which are difficult to veto or shield against, are very important for solar, reactor, dark matter, and other underground experiments, especially as increased sensitivity is pursued. We used fluka to calculate the production rates and spectra of all prominent secondaries produced by cosmic ray muons, in particular focusing on secondary neutrons, due to their importance. Since the neutron spectrum is steeply falling, the total neutron production rate is sensitive just to the relatively soft neutrons, and not to the fast-neutron component. We show that the neutron spectrum in the range between 10 and 100 MeV can instead be probed by the (n, p)-induced isotope production rates 12C(n, p)12B and 16O(n, p)16N in oil- and water-based detectors. The result for 12B is in good agreement with the recent KamLAND measurement. Besides testing the calculation of muon secondaries, these results are also of practical importance, since 12B (T1/2 = 20.2 ms, Q = 13.4 MeV) and 16N (T1/2 = 7.13 s, Q = 10.4 MeV) are among the dominant spallation backgrounds in these detectors.
Spallation Backgrounds in Super-Kamiokande Are Made in Muon-Induced Showers  [PDF]
Shirley Weishi Li,John F. Beacom
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Crucial questions about solar and supernova neutrinos remain unanswered. Super-Kamiokande has the exposure needed for progress, but detector backgrounds are a limiting factor. A leading component is the beta decays of isotopes produced by cosmic-ray muons and their secondaries, which initiate nuclear spallation reactions. Cuts of events after and surrounding muon tracks reduce this spallation decay background by $\simeq 90\%$ (at a cost of $\simeq 20\%$ deadtime), but its rate at 6--18 MeV is still dominant. A better way to cut this background was suggested in a Super-Kamiokande paper [Bays {\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~D {\bf 85}, 052007 (2012)] on a search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background. They found that spallation decays above 16 MeV were preceded near the same location by a peak in the apparent Cherenkov light profile from the muon; a more aggressive cut was applied to a limited section of the muon track, leading to decreased background without increased deadtime. We put their empirical discovery on a firm theoretical foundation. We show that almost all spallation decay isotopes are produced by muon-induced showers and that these showers are rare enough and energetic enough to be identifiable. This is the first such demonstration for any detector. We detail how the physics of showers explains the peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and other Super-K observations. Our results provide a physical basis for practical improvements in background rejection that will benefit multiple studies. For solar neutrinos, in particular, it should be possible to dramatically reduce backgrounds at energies as low as 6 MeV.
Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI  [PDF]
David J. Boehnlein,for the JASMIN Collaboration
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.3399339
Abstract: The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.
Direct measurements of neutron capture on radioactive isotopes  [PDF]
A. Couture,R. Reifarth
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.adt.2007.06.003
Abstract: We simulated the response of a 4p calorimetric g-detector array to decays of radioactive isotopes on the s-process path. The GEANT 3.21 simulation package was used. The main table contains estimates on the maximum sample size and required neutron flux based on the latest available neutron capture cross section at 30 keV. The results are intended to be used to estimate the feasibility of neutron capture measurements with 4p arrays using the time of flight technique.
Tagging Spallation Backgrounds with Showers in Water-Cherenkov Detectors  [PDF]
Shirley Weishi Li,John F. Beacom
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.105033
Abstract: Cosmic-ray muons and especially their secondaries break apart nuclei ("spallation") and produce fast neutrons and beta-decay isotopes, which are backgrounds for low-energy experiments. In Super-Kamiokande, these beta decays are the dominant background in 6--18 MeV, relevant for solar neutrinos and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. In a previous paper, we showed that these spallation isotopes are produced primarily in showers, instead of in isolation. This explains an empirical spatial correlation between a peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and the spallation decay, which Super-Kamiokande used to develop a new spallation cut. However, the muon light profiles that Super-Kamiokande measured are grossly inconsistent with shower physics. We show how to resolve this discrepancy and how to reconstruct accurate profiles of muons and their showers from their Cherenkov light. We propose a new spallation cut based on these improved profiles and quantify its effects. Our results can significantly benefit low-energy studies in Super-Kamiokande, and will be especially important for detectors at shallower depths, like the proposed Hyper-Kamiokande.
Metastasic bone pain management with radioactive isotopes
Coya Vi?a, Juan;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132005000700018
Abstract: pain is the commonest clinical manifestation of bone metastases. its treatment is palliative in nature, and consists of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonotherapy, diphosphonates, and drug therapy (i. e., opiates). radioactive isotopes represent an appealing alternative to conventional treatment modalities. among the different types of isotopes, wide clinical experience with 153sm has been obtained in this laboratory. in the present study, 94 patients (mean age = 65 years), who had been diagnosed of having breast, prostate and other malignant tumors, were evaluated. these patients were treated with 37 mbq/kg 153sm-edtmp. all of them complained of bone pain and had scintigraphic evidence of metastatic bone dissemination. treatment efficacy was evaluated both objectively and subjectively. eighty-five per cent (85%) of the patients reported pain relief, and analgesia was reduced by 55%. twenty-two per cent (22%) had a complete response. bone marrow toxicity was not a concern, with mild transient hematologic derangements in 30% of the patients. it was concluded that 153sm-edtmp results in relief or cessation of metastatic bone pain in a majority of patients.
A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector  [PDF]
T. I. Banks,S. J. Freedman,J. Wallig,N. Ybarrolaza,A. Gando,Y. Gando,H. Ikeda,K. Inoue,Y. Kishimoto,M. Koga,T. Mitsui,K. Nakamura,I. Shimizu,J. Shirai,A. Suzuki,Y. Takemoto,K. Tamae,K. Ueshima,H. Watanabe,B. D. Xu,H. Yoshida,S. Yoshida,A. Kozlov,C. Grant,G. Keefer,A. Piepke,T. Bloxham,B. K. Fujikawa,K. Han,K. Ichimura,H. Murayama,T. O'Donnell,H. M. Steiner,L. A. Winslow,D. A. Dwyer,R. D. McKeown,C. Zhang,B. E. Berger,C. E. Lane,J. Maricic,T. Miletic,M. Batygov,J. G. Learned,S. Matsuno,M. Sakai,G. A. Horton-Smith,K. E. Downum,G. Gratta,Y. Efremenko,O. Perevozchikov,H. J. Karwowski,D. M. Markoff,W. Tornow,K. M. Heeger,J. A. Detwiler,S. Enomoto,M. P. Decowski
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.068
Abstract: We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.
TRImP - A new facility to produce and trap radioactive isotopes  [PDF]
M. Sohani
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: At the Kernfysisch Vensneller Institiutr (KVI) in Groningen, NL, a new facility (TRImP) is under development. It aims for producing, slowing down, and trapping of radioactive isotopes in order to perform accurate measurements on fundamental symmetries and interactions. A production target station and a dual magnetic separator installed and commissioned. We will slow down the isotopes of interest using an ion catcher and in a further stage a radiofrequency quadropole gas cooler (RFQ). The isotopes will finally be trapped in an atomic trap for precision studies.
Production cross section of neutron-rich isotopes with radioactive and stable beams  [PDF]
Myeong-Hwan Mun,G. G. Adamian,N. V. Antonenko,Yongseok Oh,Youngman Kim
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.034622
Abstract: The production cross section of neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Zn, Te, Xe, and Pt are predicted in the diffusive multi-nucleon transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams. With these isotopes one can treat the neutron shell evolution beyond N = 28, 50, 82, and 126. Because of the small cross sections, the production of nuclei near the neutron drip line requires the optimal choice of reaction partners and bombarding energies.
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