Abstract:
Anticipating realization of interacting fermions in an optical lattice with a large gauge field, we consider phase transitions and loop currents in a two-dimensional S=1/2 fermionic-Hubbard model with $\pi$/2-staggered flux at half filling. We use a variational Monte Carlo method, which is reliable even for strong correlations. As a trial wave function, a coexistent state of antifferomagnetic and staggered-flux orders is studied. In a strongly correlated regime, the ground state becomes an insulating coexistent state with loop currents. By comparing fermions with bosons, we discuss an important role of Pauli principle.

Abstract:
We have analyzed the antiferromagnetic (J>0) Kondo-Hubbard lattice with the band at half-filling by means of a perturbative approach in the strong coupling limit, the small parameter is an arbitrary tight-binding band. The results are valid for any band shape and any dimension. We have obtained the energies of elementary charge and spin excitations as well as the magnetic correlations in order to elucidate the magnetic and charge behavior of the Kondo lattice at half-filling. Finally, we have briefly analyzed the ferromagnetic case (J<0), which is shown to be equivalent to an effective antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model.

Abstract:
The ground--state magnetic phase diagram is investigated for the two-- and three--dimensional $t$--$t'$ Hubbard model. We take into account commensurate ferro--, antiferromagnetic, and incommensurate (spiral) magnetic phases, as well as phase separation into magnetic phases of different types, which was often missed in previous investigations. We trace the influence of correlation effects on the stability of both spiral and collinear magnetic order by comparing the results of employing both the generalized non-correlated mean--field (Hartree--Fock) approximation and generalized slave boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein with correlation effects included. We found that the spiral states and especially ferromagnetism are generally strongly suppressed up to non-realistic large Hubbard $U$, if the correlation effects are taken into account. The electronic phase separation plays an important role in the formation of magnetic states and corresponding regions are wide, especially in the vicinity of half--filling. The details of magnetic ordering for different cubic lattices are discussed.

Abstract:
We study the interacting Fermi-Hubbard model in two spatial dimensions with synthetic gauge coupling of the spin orbit Rashba type, at half-filling. Using real space mean field theory, we numerically determine the phase as a function of the interaction strength for different values of the gauge field parameters. For a fixed value of the gauge field, we observe that when the strength of the repulsive interaction is increased, the system enters into an antiferromagnetic phase, then undergoes a first order phase transition to an non collinear magnetic phase. Depending on the gauge field parameter, this phase further evolves to the one predicted from the effective Heisenberg model obtained in the limit of large interaction strength. We explain the presence of the antiferromagnetic phase at small interaction from the computation of the spin-spin susceptibility which displays a divergence at low temperatures for the antiferromagnetic ordering. We discuss, how the divergence is related to the nature of the underlying Fermi surfaces. Finally, the fact that the first order phase transitions for different gauge field parameters occur at unrelated critical interaction strengths arises from a Hofstadter-like situation, i.e. for different magnetic phases, the mean-field Hamiltonians have different translational symmetries.

Abstract:
We consider the ground state magnetic phase diagram of the two-dimensional Hubbard model with nearest and next-nearest neighbor hopping in terms of electronic density and interaction. We treat commensurate ferro- and antiferromagnetic, as well as incommensurate (spiral) magnetic phases. The first-order magnetic transitions with changing chemical potential, resulting in a phase separation (PS) in terms of density, are found between ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and spiral magnetic phases. We argue that the account of PS has a dramatic influence on the phase diagram in the vicinity of half-filling. The results imply possible interpretation of the unusual behavior of magnetic properties of one-layer cuprates in terms of PS between collinear and spiral magnetic phases. The relation of the results obtained to the magnetic properties of ruthenates is also discussed.

Abstract:
We investigate the phase diagram of the three-dimensional Hubbard model at half filling using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. The antiferromagnetic Neel temperature T_N is determined from the specific heat maximum in combination with finite-size scaling of the magnetic structure factor. Our results interpolate smoothly between the asymptotic solutions for weak and strong coupling, respectively, in contrast to previous QMC simulations. The location of the metal-insulator transition in the paramagnetic phase above T_N is determined using the electronic compressibility as criterion.

Abstract:
The Kitaev-Hubbard model of interacting fermions is defined on the honeycomb lattice and, at strong coupling, interpolates between the Heisenberg model and the Kitaev model. It is basically a Hubbard model with ordinary hopping $t$ and spin-dependent hopping $t'$. We study this model in the weak to intermediate coupling regime, at half-filling, using the Cellular Dynamical Impurity Approximation (CDIA), an approach related to Dynamical Mean Field Theory but based on Potthoff's variational principle. We identify four phases in the $(U,t')$ plane: two semi-metallic phases with different numbers of Dirac points, an antiferromagnetic insulator, and an algebraic spin liquid. The last two are separated by a first-order transition. These four phases all meet at a single point and could be realized in cold atom systems.

Abstract:
We study the magnetic properties of the 3d Hubbard model at half-filling in the TPSC formalism, previously developed for the 2d model. We focus on the N\'eel transition approached from the disordered side and on the paramagnetic phase. We find a very good quantitative agreement with Dynamical Mean-Field results for the isotropic 3d model. Calculations on finite size lattices also provide satisfactory comparisons with Monte Carlo results up to the intermediate coupling regime. We point out a qualitative difference between the isotropic 3d case, and the 2d or anisotropic 3d cases for the double occupation factor. Even for this local correlation function, 2d or anisotropic 3d cases are out of reach of DMF: this comes from the inability of DMF to account for antiferromagnetic fluctuations, which are crucial.

Abstract:
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram is investigated within the single-band Hubbard model for square and different cubic lattices. The results of employing the generalized non-correlated mean-field (Hartree-Fock) approximation and generalized slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein with correlation effects included are compared. We take into account commensurate ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and incommensurate (spiral) magnetic phases, as well as phase separation into magnetic phases of different types, which was often lacking in previous investigations. It is found that the spiral states and especially ferromagnetism are generally strongly suppressed up to non-realistically large Hubbard $U$ by the correlation effects if nesting is absent and van Hove singularities are well away from the paramagnetic phase Fermi level. The magnetic phase separation plays an important role in the formation of magnetic states, the corresponding phase regions being especially wide in the vicinity of half-filling. The details of non-collinear and collinear magnetic ordering for different cubic lattices are discussed.

Abstract:
We solve analytically the $N\times N$ square lattice Hubbard model for even $N$ at half filling and weak coupling by a new approach. The exact ground state wave function provides an intriguing and appealing picture of the antiferromagnetic order. Like at strong coupling, the ground state has total momentum $K_{tot}=(0,0)$ and transforms as an $s$ wave for even $N/2$ and as a $d$ wave otherwise.