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RR Lyrae Stars and Anomalous Cepheids in the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy  [PDF]
K. Kinemuchi,H. A. Smith,A. LaCluyze,C. L. Clark,H. C. Harris,N. Silbermann,L. A. Snyder
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present new results on RR Lyrae stars and anomalous Cepheids in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We have increased the number of double-mode RR Lyrae stars and found three new anomalous Cepheids. With period-magnitude and period-amplitude diagrams, we discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Draco. Contradictory results were found in that Draco appears to contain both Oosterhoff I and II type RR Lyrae populations.
Weak Galactic halo--dwarf spheroidal connection from RR Lyrae stars  [PDF]
Giuliana Fiorentino,Giuseppe Bono,Matteo Monelli,Peter B. Stetson,Eline Tolstoy,Carme Gallart,Maurizio Salaris,Clara Martinez,Edouard J. Bernard
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/798/1/L12
Abstract: We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in six dwarf spheroidals and eleven ultra faint dwarf galaxies (1,300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of =0.610+-0.001 days (sigma=0.03). The Halo RRL (15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dwarf spheroidals apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P< 0.48 days and Av> 0.75mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered eighteen globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (-2.3< [Fe/H]< -1.1) and hosting more than 35 RRL each. The metallicity turns out to be the main parameter, since only globulars more metal--rich than [Fe/H] -1.5 host RRL in the HASP region. This finding suggests that dSphs similar to the surviving ones do not appear to be the major building-blocks of the Halo. Leading physical arguments suggest an extreme upper limit of 50% to their contribution. On the other hand, massive dwarfs hosting an old population with a broad metallicity distribution (Large Magellanic Cloud, Sagittarius) may have played a primary role in the formation of the Halo.
RR Lyrae variables in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I  [PDF]
E. V. Held,G. Clementini,L. Rizzi,Y. Momany,I. Saviane,L. Di Fabrizio
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338105
Abstract: We report the discovery of a significant population of RR Lyrae variables in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I. Based on 40 V and 22 B images of the galaxy taken using the ESO Wide Field Imager we have identified so far 74 candidate RR Lyrae's in two CCD's hosting the main body of the galaxy. Full coverage of the light variations and pulsation periods have been obtained for 54 of them, 47 of which are Bailey {\it ab}-type RR Lyrae's (RRab's) and 7 are {\it c}-type (RRc's). The period distribution of the presently confirmed sample of RRab's peaks at P=0\fd60, with a minimum period of 0\fd54. The pulsational properties indicate for Leo I an intermediate Oosterhoff type, similar to other dwarf galaxies in the Local Group and the LMC. However, the rather long minimum period of the {\it ab}-type variables, and the significant number of RRab's with long period and large amplitude, suggest that the bulk of the old population in Leo I is more like the Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. The most straightforward interpretation is that a range in metallicity is present among the RR Lyrae's of Leo I, with a significant population of very metal-poor stars. Alternatively, these OoII variables could be more evolved. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae's across the full cycle is $= 22.60 \pm 0.12$ mag, yielding a distance modulus $(m-M)_{V,0}= 22.04\pm 0.14$ mag for Leo I on the ``long'' distance scale.
The RR Lyrae Distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy  [PDF]
A. Z. Bonanos,K. Z. Stanek,A. H. Szentgyorgyi,D. D. Sasselov,G. A. Bakos
Statistics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/510311
Abstract: We present the first CCD variability study of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The data were obtained with the FLWO 1.2 m telescope on 22 nights, over a period of 10 months, covering a 22 x 22 arcmin field centered at RA=17:19:57.5, Dec=57:50:05, J2000.0. The analysis of the BVI images produced 163 variable stars, 146 of which were RR Lyrae: 123 RRab, 16 RRc, 6 RRd and one RR12. The other variables include a SX Phe star, four anomalous Cepheids and a field eclipsing binary. Using the short distance scale statistical parallax calibration of Gould & Popowski and 94 RRab stars from our field, we obtain a distance modulus of (m-M)_0=19.40 +/- 0.02 (stat) +/- 0.15 (syst) mag for Draco, corresponding to a distance of 75.7 kpc +/- 0.7 (stat) +/- 5.4 (syst) kpc. By comparing the spread in magnitudes of RRab stars in B,V and I, we find no evidence for internal dust in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The catalog of all variables, as well as their photometry and finding charts, is available electronically via anonymous ftp and the World Wide Web. The complete set of the CCD frames is available upon request.
RR Lyrae stars in four globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf galaxy  [PDF]
A. D. Mackey,G. F. Gilmore
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.07001.x
Abstract: (Abridged) We have surveyed four globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf galaxy for RR Lyrae stars, using archival HST observations. We identify 197 new RR Lyrae stars in these four clusters. Despite the short observational baseline, we derive periods, light-curves, and photometric parameters for each. The Fornax clusters have exceptionally large RR Lyrae specific frequencies compared with the Galactic globular clusters. Furthermore, the Fornax cluster RR Lyrae stars are unusual in that their characteristics are intermediate between the two Galactic Oosterhoff groups. In this respect the Fornax clusters are similar to the field populations in several dwarf galaxies. We revise previous measurements of the HB morphology in each cluster. The Fornax clusters closely resemble the ``young'' Galactic halo population defined by Zinn. The existence of the second parameter effect among the Fornax clusters is also confirmed. Finally, we determine foreground reddening and distance estimates for each cluster. We find a mean distance modulus to Fornax of (m-M)_0 = 20.66 +/- 0.03 (random) +/- 0.15 (systematic). Our measurements are consistent with a line of sight depth of 8-10 kpc for this galaxy, matching its projected dimensions, and incompatible with tidal model explanations for the observed high velocity dispersions in many dSph galaxies. Dark matter dominance is suggested.
Distance to the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy using MACHO Project RR Lyrae stars  [PDF]
Andrea Kunder,Brian Chaboyer
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/137/5/4478
Abstract: We derive the distance to the northern extension of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy from 203 Sgr RR0 Lyrae stars found in the MACHO database. Their distances are determined differentially with respect to 288 Galactic Bulge RR0 Lyrae stars also found in the MACHO data. We find a distance modulus difference of 2.41 mags at $l$ = 5$^{\circ}$ and $b$ = -8$^{\circ}$ and that the extension of the Sgr galaxy towards the galactic plane is inclined toward us. Assuming $\rm R_{GC}$ = 8 kpc, this implies the distance to these stars is $(m-M)_0$ = 16.97 $\pm$ 0.07 mags, which corresponds to D = 24.8 $\pm$ 0.8 kpc. Although this estimate is smaller than previous determinations for this galaxy and agrees with previous suggestions that Sgr's body is truly closer to us, this estimate is larger than studies at comparable galactic latitudes.
RR Lyrae stars in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy: Period analysis  [PDF]
Patrick Cseresnjes
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010863
Abstract: (Abridged) We carried out a period analysis on ~3700 RR Lyrae stars spread over ~50 square degrees towards the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). The RR Lyraes are distributed almost evenly between Sgr and the Milky Way. For Sgr members, the average periods are 0.574 day and 0.322 day for RRab and RRc stars respectively. This places Sgr in the long-period tail of the Oosterhoff I group. We report the detection of 53 double-mode RR Lyrae stars (RRd) within our sample. The magnitude of 40 of these stars is consistent with membership in Sgr whereas 13 RRds are located within our Galaxy. We also found 13 RR Lyraes (5 in Sgr and 8 in the Galaxy) exhibiting two closely spaced frequencies, most probably related to non-radial pulsations. The period distribution of the RR Lyrae variables in Sgr is compared to those of other Milky Way satellites. We find a remarkable similarity between the RR Lyrae populations in Sgr and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), suggesting that these galaxies have similar horizontal branch morphologies. This may indicate that Sgr and the LMC started their formation under similar conditions. Using various photometric indicators, we estimate the metallicity of the RR Lyrae stars in Sgr and find <[Fe/H]>~-1.6 dex with a dispersion of ~ +/-0.5 dex around this value and a minor but significant population at <-2.0 dex. We do not find evidence for a spatial metallicity gradient in the RR Lyrae population of Sgr. From the spatial distribution of RR Lyraes, we estimate the RRab content and total luminosity of this galaxy and find MV(Sgr)~-14.7 mag, a value that would be consistent with the empirical metallicity/luminosity relation for Dsph galaxies.
Pushing the limits, episode 2: K2 observations of extragalactic RR Lyrae stars in the dwarf galaxy Leo IV  [PDF]
L. Molnár,A. Pál,E. Plachy,V. Ripepi,M. I. Moretti,R. Szabó,L. L. Kiss
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/2
Abstract: We present the first observations of extragalactic pulsating stars in the K2 ecliptic survey of the Kepler space telescope. Variability of all three RR Lyrae stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo IV were successfully detected, at a brightness of Kp~21.5 mag, from data collected during Campaign 1. We identified one modulated star and another likely Blazhko candidate with periods of 29.8+-0.9 d and more than 80 d, respectively. EPIC 210282473 represents the first star beyond the Magellanic Clouds for which the Blazhko period and cycle-to-cycle variations in the modulation were unambiguously measured.The photometric [Fe/H] indices of the stars agree with earlier results that Leo IV is a very metal-poor galaxy. Two out of three stars blend with brighter background galaxies in the K2 frames. We demonstrate that image subtraction can be reliably used to extract photometry from faint confused sources that will be crucial not only for the K2 mission but for future space photometric missions as well.
Homogeneous Photometry VI: Variable Stars in the Leo I Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy  [PDF]
Peter B. Stetson,Giuliana Fiorentino,Giuseppe Bono,Edouard J. Bernard,Matteo Monelli,Giacinto Iannicola,Carme Gallart,Ivan Ferraro
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1086/677352
Abstract: We have characterized the pulsation properties of 164 candidate RR Lyrae variables (RRLs) and 55 candidate Anomalous and/or short-period Cepheids in Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy. On the basis of its RRLs Leo I is confirmed to be an Oosterhoff-intermediate type galaxy, like several other dwarfs. We show that in their pulsation properties, the RRLs representing the oldest stellar population in the galaxy are not significantly different from those of five other nearby, isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. A similar result is obtained when comparing them to RR Lyrae stars in recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We are able to compare the period distributions and period-amplitude relations for a statistically significant sample of ab type RR Lyrae stars in dwarf galaxies (~1300stars) with those in the Galactic halo field (~14,000stars) and globular clusters (~1000stars). Field RRLs show a significant change in their period distribution when moving from the inner (dG<14 kpc) to the outer (dG>14kpc) halo regions. This suggests that the halo formed from (at least) two dissimilar progenitors or types of progenitor. Considered together, the RRLs in classical dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies-as observed today-do not appear to follow the well defined pulsation properties shown by those in either the inner or the outer Galactic halo, nor do they have the same properties as RRLs in globular clusters. In particular, the samples of fundamental-mode RRLs in dwarfs seem to lack High Amplitudes and Short Periods ("HASP":AV>1.0mag and P <0.48d) when compared with those observed in the Galactic halo field and globular clusters. The observed properties of RRLs do not support the idea that currently existing classical dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are surviving representative examples of the original building blocks of the Galactic halo.
MACHO Project Photometry of RR Lyrae Stars in the Sgr Dwarf Galaxy  [PDF]
C. Alcock,R. A. Allsman,D. R. Alves,T. S. Axelrod,A. Becker,D. P. Bennett,K. H. Cook,K. C. Freeman,K. Griest,J. A. Guern,M. J. Lehner,S. L. Marshall,D. Minniti,B. A. Peterson,M. R. Pratt,P. J. Quinn,A. W. Rodgers,C. W. Stubbs,W. Sutherland,D. L. Welch
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/303467
Abstract: We report the discovery of 30 type a,b RR Lyrae (RRab) which are likely members of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy. Accurate positions, periods, amplitudes and magnitudes are presented. Their distances are determined with respect to RRab in the Galactic bulge found also in the MACHO 1993 data. For R$_{\odot} = 8$ kpc, the mean distance to these stars is $D = 22 \pm 1$ kpc, smaller than previous determinations for this galaxy. This indicates that Sgr has an elongated main body extending for more than 10 kpc, which is inclined along the line of sight, with its northern part (in Galactic coordinates) closer to us. The size and shape of Sgr give clues about the past history of this galaxy. If the shape of Sgr follows the direction of its orbit, the observed spatial orientation suggests that Sgr is moving away from the Galactic plane. Also, Sgr stars may be the sources of some of the microlensing events seen towards the bulge.
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