Abstract:
The technique of extended dualization developed in this paper is used to bosonize quantized fermion systems in arbitrary dimension $D$ in the low energy regime. In its original (minimal) form, dualization is restricted to models wherein it is possible to define a dynamical quantized conserved charge. We generalize the usual dualization prescription to include systems with dynamical non--conserved quantum currents. Bosonization based on this extended dualization requires the introduction of an additional rank $0$ (scalar) field together with the usual antisymmetric tensor field of rank $(D-2)$. Our generalized dualization prescription permits one to clearly distinguish the arbitrariness in the bosonization from the arbitrariness in the quantization of the system. We study the bosonization of four--fermion interactions with large mass in arbitrary dimension. First, we observe that dualization permits one to formally bosonize these models by invoking the bosonization of the free massive Dirac fermion and adding some extra model--dependent bosonic terms. Secondly, we explore the potential of extended dualization by considering the particular case of \underbar{chiral} four--fermion interactions. Here minimal dualization is inadequate for calculating the extra bosonic terms. We demonstrate the utility of extended dualization by successfully completing the bosonization of this chiral model. Finally, we consider two examples in two dimensions which illuminate the utility of using extended dualization by showing how quantization ambiguities in a fermionic theory propagate into the bosonized version. An explicit parametrization of the quantization ambiguities of the chiral current in the Chiral Schwinger model is obtained. Similarly, for the sine--Gordon interaction in the massive Thirring model the quantization

Abstract:
We bosonize the Massive Thirring Model in 3+1D for small coupling constant and arbitrary mass. The bosonized action is explicitly obtained both in terms of a Kalb-Ramond tensor field as well as in terms of a dual vector field. An exact bosonization formula for the current is derived. The small and large mass limits of the bosonized theory are examined in both the direct and dual forms. We finally obtain the exact bosonization of the free fermion with an arbitrary mass.

Abstract:
Starting from a reformulation of the Thirring model as a gauge theory, we consider the bosonization of the $D$-dimensional multiflavor massive Thirring model $(D \ge 2)$ with four-fermion interaction of the current-current type. Our method leads to a novel interpolating Lagrangian written in terms of two gauge fields. Especially we pay attention to the case of very massive fermion $m \gg 1$ in (2+1) and (1+1) dimensions. Up to the next-to-leading order of $1/m$, we show that the (2+1)-dimensional massive Thirring model is mapped to the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory and that the (1+1)-dimensional massive Thirring model is equivalent to the massive free scalar field theory. In the process of the bosonization of the Thirring model, we point out the importance of the gauge-invariant formulation. Finally we discuss a possibility of extending this method to the non-Abelian case.

Abstract:
We develop a new approach for bosonization based on the direct comparison of current correlation functions and apply it to the case of the Massive Thirring Model in three dimensions in the weak coupling regime, but with an arbitrary mass. Explicit bosonized forms for the lagrangian and the current are obtained in terms of a vector gauge field. Exact results for the corresponding expressions are also obtained in the case of a free massive fermion. Finally, a comment on the derivation of the current algebra directly from the bosonized expressions is included.

Abstract:
Using the hamiltonian formalism, we investigate the smooth bosonization method in which bosonization and fermionization are carried out through a specific gauge-fixing of an enlarged gauge invariant theory. The generator of the local gauge symmetry, which cannot be derived from the lagrangian of the enlarged theory, is obtained by making a canonical transformation. We also show that the massless Thirring model possesses a similar local gauge symmetry for a speific value of the coupling constant.

Abstract:
Bosonization of the extended Thirring model with SU(2) symmetry in the Minkowski path integral method is discussed. We argue that it is not an easy task to bosonize such a model if we derive correctly the fermion determinant which is induced with the decoupling transformation because it seems that there arise ghost fields. This is contrary to what is shown in a textbook and some people believe.

Abstract:
A procedure of bosonization of Fermions in an arbitrary dimension is suggested. It is shown that a quadratic expression in the fermionic fields after rescaling time $t\to t/\lambda^2$ and performing the limit $\lambda\to0$ (stochastic limit), gives rise to a bosonic operator satisfying the boson canonical commutation relations. This stochastic bosonization of Fermions is considered first for free fields and then for a model with three--linear couplings. The limiting dynamics of the bosonic theory turns out to be described by means of a quantum stochastic differential equations.

Abstract:
We discuss an extension of the (massless) Thirring model describing interacting fermions in one dimension which are coupled to phonons and where all interactions are local. This fermion-phonon model can be solved exactly by bosonization. We present a construction and solution of this model which is mathematically rigorous by treating it as a limit of a Luttinger-phonon model. A self-contained account of the mathematical results underlying bosonization is included, together with complete proofs.

Abstract:
We show equivalence between the massive Thirring model and the sine-Gordon theory by gauge fixing a wider gauge invariant theory in two different ways. The exact derivation of the equivalence hinges on the existence of an underlying conformal symmetry. Previous derivations were all perturbative in mass (althought to all orders).

Abstract:
We use our recently developed functional bosonization approach to bosonize interacting fermions in arbitrary dimension $d$ beyond the Gaussian approximation. Even in $d=1$ the finite curvature of the energy dispersion at the Fermi surface gives rise to interactions between the bosons. In higher dimensions scattering processes describing momentum transfer between different patches on the Fermi surface (around-the-corner processes) are an additional source for corrections to the Gaussian approximation. We derive an explicit expression for the leading correction to the bosonized Hamiltonian and the irreducible self-energy of the bosonic propagator that takes the finite curvature as well as around-the-corner processes into account. In the special case that around-the-corner scattering is negligible, we show that the self-energy correction to the Gaussian propagator is negligible if the dimensionless quantities $ ( \frac{q_{c} }{ k_{F}} )^d F_{0} [ 1 + F_{0} ]^{-1} \frac{\mu}{\nu^{\alpha}} | \frac{ \partial \nu^{\alpha} }{ \partial \mu} |$ are small compared with unity for all patches $\alpha$. Here $q_{c}$ is the cutoff of the interaction in wave-vector space, $k_{F}$ is the Fermi wave-vector, $\mu$ is the chemical potential, $F_{0}$ is the usual dimensionless Landau interaction-parameter, and $\nu^{\alpha} $ is the {\it{local}} density of states associated with patch $\alpha$. We also show that the well known cancellation between vertex- and self-energy corrections in one-dimensional systems, which is responsible for the fact that the random-phase approximation for the density-density correlation function is exact in $d=1$, exists also in $d> 1$, provided (1) the interaction cutoff $q_{c}$ is small compared with $k_{F}$, and (2) the energy dispersion is locally linearized at the Fermi the Fermi surface. Finally, we suggest a new systematic method to calculate corrections to the RPA, which is based on the perturbative calculation of the irreducible bosonic self-energy arising from the non-Gaussian terms of the bosonized Hamiltonian.