Abstract:
Motivated mainly by certain interesting recent extensions of the Gamma, Beta and hypergeometric functions, we introduce here new extensions of the Beta function, hypergeometric and confluent hypergeometric functions. We systematically investigate several properties of each of these extended functions, namely their various integral representations, Mellin transforms, derivatives, transformations, summation formulas and asymptotics. Relevant connections of certain special cases of the main results presented here are also pointed out.

Abstract:
The article is devoted to Beta and Gamma functions of Cayley-Dickson numbers. It is shown that there are specific features in comparison with the complex case. These functions serve as examples of meromorphic functions of Cayley-Dickson variables and illustrate applications of line integrals. Useful identities for Beta and Gamma functions are proved.

Abstract:
Theoretically a possibility of covariance violation in weak decays is not ruled out from the first principles, while there are some models predicting non-covariance revealed in weak interactions. The experimental evidence for isotropy violation in $\beta$-decays was recently reported. We present a study of the dependence of electron flow rate and $\beta$-electron energy in the decay of $Sr^{90}$ with respect to the direction of electron emission. An upper limit of $1.4 \cdot 10^{-5}$ on directional dependence of $\beta$-electron energy was obtained.

Abstract:
We introduce new generalizations of the Gamma and the Beta functions. Their properties are investigated and known results are obtained as particular cases.

Abstract:
We calculate discrete beta functions corresponding to the two-lattice matching for the 2D O(N) models and Dyson's hierarchical model. We describe and explain finite-size effects such as the appearance of a nontrivial infrared fixed point that goes to infinity at infinite volume or the merging of an infrared and an ultraviolet fixed point. We present extensions of the RG flows to the complex coupling plane. We discuss the possibility of constructing a continuous beta function from the discrete one by using functional conjugation methods. We briefly discuss the relevance of these findings for the search of nontrivial fixed points in multiflavor lattice gauge theory models.

Abstract:
We discuss the arbitrariness in the choice of cutoff scheme in calculations of beta functions. We define a class of "pure" cutoff schemes, in which the cutoff is completely independent of the parameters that appear in the action. In a sense they are at the opposite extreme of the "spectrally adjusted" cutoffs, which depend on all the parameters that appear in the action. We compare the results for the beta functions of Newton's constant and of the cosmological constant obtained with a typical cutoff and with a pure cutoff, keeping all else fixed. We find that the dependence of the fixed point on an arbitrary parameter in the pure cutoff is rather mild. We then show in general that if a spectrally adjusted cutoff produces a fixed point, there is a corresponding pure cutoff that will give a fixed point in the same position.

Abstract:
We give a full analysis of the auto- and cross-correlations between the Stokes parameters of the cosmic microwave background. In particular, we derive the windowing function for an antenna with Gaussian response in polarization experiment, and construct correlation function estimators corrected for instrumental noise. They are applied to calculate the signal to noise ratios for future anisotropy and polarization measurements. While the small-angular-scale anisotropy-polarization correlation would be likely detected by the MAP satellite, the detection of electric and magnetic polarization would require higher experimental sensitivity. For large-angular-scale measurements such as the being planned SPOrt/ISS, the expected signal to noise ratio for polarization is greater than one only for reionized models with high reionization redshifts, and the ratio is less for anisotropy-polarization correlation. Correlation and covariance matrices for likelihood analyses of ground-based and satellite data are also given.

Abstract:
The anisotropy of the positrons emitted in the reaction $\bar{\nu}_{e}+p\to n+e^{+}$ has to be taken into account for extracting an antineutrino signal in Superkamiokande. For the Sun, this effect allows a sensitivity to $\nu_{e}\to\bar{\nu}_{e}$ transition probability at the 3% level already with the statistics collected in the first hundred days. For a supernova in the Galaxy, the effect is crucial for extracting the correct ratio of $\nu-e$ to $\bar\nu_{e}-p$ events.

Abstract:
We present evidence of topological surface states in beta-Ag2Te through first-principles calculations and periodic quantum interference effect in single crystalline nanoribbon. Our first-principles calculations show that beta-Ag2Te is a topological insulator with a gapless Dirac cone with strong anisotropy. To experimentally probe the topological surface state, we synthesized high quality beta-Ag2Te nanoribbons and performed electron transport measurements. The coexistence of pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and weak Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations clearly demonstrates coherent electron transport around the perimeter of beta-Ag2Te nanoribbon and therefore the existence of metallic surface states, which is further supported by the temperature dependence of resistivity for beta-Ag2Te nanoribbons with different cross section areas. Highly anisotropic topological surface state of beta-Ag2Te suggests that the material is a promising material for fundamental study and future spintronic devices.

Abstract:
We study the type IIB brane box configurations recently introduced by Hanany and Zaffaroni. We show that even at finite string coupling, one can construct smooth configurations of branes with fairly arbitrary gauge and flavor structure. Limiting our attention to the better understood case where NS-branes do not intersect over a four dimensional surface gives some restrictions on the theories, but still permits many examples, both anomalous and non-anomalous. We give several explicit examples of such configurations and discuss what constraints can be imposed on brane-box theories from bending considerations. We also discuss the relation between brane bending and beta-functions for brane-box configurations.