Abstract:
Given a $C^1$ homeomorphism of the unit circle $\gamma$, let $f$ and $g$ be respectively the normalized conformal maps from the unit disc and its exterior so that $\gamma= g^{-1}\circ f$ on the unit circle. In this article, we show that by suitably defined time variables, the evolutions of the pairs $(g, f)$ and $(g^{-1}, f^{-1})$ can be described by an infinite set of nonlinear partial differential equations known as dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Relations to the integrable structure of conformal maps first studied by Wiegmann and Zabrodin \cite{WZ} are discussed. An extension of the hierarchy which contains both our solution and the solution of \cite{WZ} is defined.

Abstract:
Under certain reality conditions, a general solution to the dispersionless Toda lattice hierarchy describes deformations of simply-connected plane domains with a smooth boundary. The solution depends on an arbitrary (real positive) function of two variables which plays the role of a density or a conformal metric in the plane. We consider in detail the important class of symmetric solutions characterized by the density functions that depend only on the distance from the origin and that are positive and regular in an annulus $r_0< |z|

Abstract:
We discuss the origin of the associativity (WDVV) equations in the context of quasiclassical or Whitham hierarchies. The associativity equations are shown to be encoded in the dispersionless limit of the Hirota equations for KP and Toda hierarchies. We show, therefore, that any tau-function of dispersionless KP or Toda hierarchy provides a solution to associativity equations. In general, they depend on infinitely many variables. We also discuss the particular solution to the dispersionless Toda hierarchy that describes conformal mappings and construct a family of new solutions to the WDVV equations depending on finite number of variables.

Abstract:
We explicitly construct the series expansion for a certain class of solutions to the 2D Toda hierarchy in the zero dispersion limit, which we call symmetric solutions. We express the Taylor coefficients through some universal combinatorial constants and find recurrence relations for them. These results are used to obtain new formulas for the genus 0 double Hurwitz numbers. They can also serve as a starting point for a constructive approach to the Riemann mapping problem and the inverse potential problem in 2D.

Abstract:
The Hamiltonian structure of the two-dimensional dispersionless Toda hierarchy is studied, this being a particular example of a system of hydrodynamic type. The polynomial conservation laws for the system turn out, after a change of variable, to be associated with the axially symmetric solutions of the 3-dimensional Laplace equation and this enables a generating function for the Hamiltonian densities to be derived in closed form.

Abstract:
A $\bar{\partial}$-formalism for studying dispersionless integrable hierarchies is applied to the dKP hierarchy. Connections with the theory of quasiconformal mappings on the plane are described and some clases of explicit solutions of the dKP hierarchy are presented.

Abstract:
In this paper, we derive the Fay-like identities of tau function for the Toda lattice hierarchy from the bilinear identity. We prove that the Fay-like identities are equivalent to the hierarchy. We also show that the dispersionless limit of the Fay-like identities are the dispersionless Hirota equations of the dispersionless Toda hierarchy.

Abstract:
Solutions of the Riemann-Hilbert problem implementing the twistorial structure of the dispersionless Toda (dToda) hierarchy are obtained. Two types of string equations are considered which characterize solutions arising in hodograph sectors and integrable structures of two-dimensional quantum gravity and Laplacian growth problems.

Abstract:
The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov--Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit.

Abstract:
This paper is focused on geometric aspects of two particular types of finite-variable reductions in the dispersionless Toda hierarchy. The reductions are formulated in terms of ''Landau-Ginzburg potentials'' that play the role of reduced Lax functions. One of them is a generalization of Dubrovin and Zhang's trigonometric polynomial. The other is a transcendental function, the logarithm of which resembles the waterbag models of the dispersionless KP hierarchy. They both satisfy a radial version of the L wner equations. Consistency of these L wner equations yields a radial version of the Gibbons-Tsarev equations. These equations are used to formulate hodograph solutions of the reduced hierarchy. Geometric aspects of the Gibbons-Tsarev equations are explained in the language of classical differential geometry (Darboux equations, Egorov metrics and Combescure transformations). Flat coordinates of the underlying Egorov metrics are presented.