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 Graphene (Graphene) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2017.61002 Abstract: We report the effect of boron (nitrogen)-divacancy complex defects on the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon by means of density functional theory. It is found that the defective subbands appear in the conduction band and valence band in accordance with boron (nitrogen)-divacancy defect, respectively; the impurity subbands don’t lead to the transition from the metallic characteristic to a semiconducting one. These complex defects affect the electronic band structures around the Fermi level of the graphene nanoribbon; the charge densities of these configurations have also changed distinctly. It is hoped that the theoretical results are helpful in designing the electronic device.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.165401 Abstract: Nitrogen doping in graphene has important implications in graphene-based devices and catalysts. We have performed the density functional theory calculations to study the electronic structures of N-doped graphene with vacancies and Stone-Wales defect. Our results show that monovacancies in graphene act as hole dopants and that two substitutional N dopants are needed to compensate for the hole introduced by a monovacancy. On the other hand, divacancy does not produce any free carriers. Interestingly, a single N dopant at divacancy acts as an acceptor rather than a donor. The interference between native point defect and N dopant strongly modifies the role of N doping regarding the free carrier production in the bulk pi bands. For some of the defects and N dopant-defect complexes, localized defect pi states are partially occupied. Discussion on the possibility of spin polarization in such cases is given. We also present qualitative arguments on the electronic structures based on the local bond picture. We have analyzed the 1s-related x-ray photoemission and adsorption spectroscopy spectra of N dopants at vacancies and Stone-Wales defect in connection with the experimental ones. We also discuss characteristic scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images originating from the electronic and structural modifications by the N dopant-defect complexes. STM imaging for small negative bias voltage will provide important information about possible active sites for oxygen reduction reaction.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.165414 Abstract: Adsorption of molecular oxygen on B-, N-, Al-, Si-, P-, Cr- and Mn-doped graphene is theoretically studied using density functional theory in order to clarify if O2 can change the possibility of using doped graphene for gas sensors, electronic and spintronic devices. O2 is physisorbed on B-, and Ndoped graphene with small adsorption energy and long distance from the graphene plane, indicating the oxidation will not happen; chemisorption is observed on Al-, Si-, P-, Cr- and Mn-doped graphene. The local curvature caused by the large bond length of X-C (X represents the dopants) relative to CC bond plays a very important role in this chemisorption. The chemisorption of O2 induces dramatic changes of electronic structures and localized spin polarization of doped graphene, and in particular, chemisorption of O2 on Cr-doped graphene is antiferromagnetic. The analysis of electronic density of states shows the contribution of the hybridization between O and dopants is mainly from the p or d orbitals. Furthermore, spin density shows that the magnetization locates mainly around the doped atoms, which may be responsible for the Kondo effect. These special properties supply a good choice to control the electronic properties and spin polarization in the field of graphene engineering.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4931152 Abstract: We have investigated the adsorption of Li on graphene oxide using density functional theory. We show a novel and simple approach to achieve a positive lithiation potential on epoxy and hydroxyl functionalized graphene, compared to the negative lithiation potential that has been found on prestine graphene. We included the van der Waals correction into the calculation so as to get better picture of weak interactions. A positive lithiation potential suggests a favorable adsorption of Li on graphene oxide sheets that can lead to an increase in the specific capacity, which in turn can be used as an anode material in Li-batteries. We find a high specific capacity of ~860 mAh/g by functionalizing the graphene sheet. This capacity is higher than the previously reported capacities that were achieved on graphene with high concentration of Stone-Wales (75%) and divacancy (16%) defects. Creating such high density of defects can make the entire system energetically unstable, whereas graphene oxide is a naturally occurring substance.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.481411 Abstract: Density functional theory has been used to study the adsorption of molecular H2 on a graphene layer. Different adsorption sites on top of atoms, bonds and the center of carbon hexagons have been considered and compared. We conclude that the most stable configuration of H2 is physisorbed above the center of an hexagon. Barriers for classical diffusion are, however, very small.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.033404 Abstract: We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene and their modification due to the adsorption of water and other gas molecules. Water and gas molecules adsorbed on nanoscale graphene were found to play the role of defects which facilitate the tunability of the bandgap and allow us to control the magnetic ordering of localized states at the edges. The adsorbed molecules push the wavefunctions corresponding to $\alpha$-spin (up) and $\beta$-spin (down) states of graphene to the opposite (zigzag) edges. This breaks the sublattice and molecular point group symmetry that results in opening of a large bandgap. The efficiency of the wavefunction displacement depends strongly on the type of molecules adsorbed
 Physics , 2012, Abstract: We investigate molecular adsorption doping by electron withdrawing NO2 and electron donating NH3 on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face SiC substrates. Amperometric measurements show conductance changes upon introduction of molecular adsorbents on epitaxial graphene. Conductance changes are a trade-off between carrier concentration and scattering, and manifest at direct current and optical frequencies. We therefore investigate changes in the infrared (IR) reflection spectra to correlate these two frequency domains, as reflectance changes are due to a change of epitaxial graphene (EG) surface conductance. We match theory with experimental IR data and extract changes in carrier concentration and scattering due to gas adsorption. Finally, we separate the intraband and interband scattering contributions to the electronic transport under gas adsorption. The results indicate that, under gas adsorption, the influence of interband scattering cannot be neglected, even at DC.
 Eric Cockayne Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.125409 Abstract: The structure of finite-area topological defects in graphene is described in terms of both the direct honeycomb lattice and its dual triangular lattice. Such defects are equivalent to cutting out a patch of graphene and replacing it with a different patch with the same number of dangling bonds. An important subset of these defects, bound by a closed loop of alternating 5- and 7-membered carbon rings, explains most finite-area topological defects that have been experimentally observed. Previously unidentified defects seen in scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of graphene grown on SiC are identified as isolated divacancies or divacancy clusters.
 Physics , 2011, Abstract: Graphene, being one-atom thick, is extremely sensitive to the presence of adsorbed atoms and molecules and, more generally, to defects such as vacancies, holes and/or substitutional dopants. This property, apart from being directly usable in molecular sensor devices, can also be employed to tune graphene electronic properties. Here we briefly review the basic features of atomic-scale defects that can be useful for material design. After a brief introduction on isolated $p_z$ defects, we analyse the electronic structure of multiple defective graphene substrates, and show how to predict the presence of microscopically ordered magnetic structures. Subsequently, we analyse the more complicated situation where the electronic structure, as modified by the presence of some defects, affects chemical reactivity of the substrate towards adsorption (chemisorption) of atomic/molecular species, leading to preferential sticking on specific lattice positions. Then, we consider the reverse problem, that is how to use defects to engineer graphene electronic properties. In this context, we show that arranging defects to form honeycomb-shaped superlattices (what we may call "supergraphenes") a sizeable gap opens in the band structure and new Dirac cones are created right close to the gapped region. Similarly, we show that substitutional dopants such as group IIIA/VA elements may have gapped quasi-conical structures corresponding to massive Dirac carriers. All these possible structures might find important technological applications in the development of graphene-based logic transistors.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.165427 Abstract: Zigzag graphene nanoribb ons have spin-polarized edges, anti-ferromagnetically coupled in the ground state with total spin zero. Customarily, these ribbons are made ferromagnetic by producing an imbalance between the two sublattices. Here we show that zigzag ribbons can be ferromagnetic due to the presence of reconstructed divacancies near one edge. This effect takes place despite the divacancies are produced by removing two atoms from opposite sublattices, being balanced before reconstruction to 5-8-5 defects. We demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between the defect-localized and edge bands which mix and split away from the Fermi level. This splitting is asymmetric, yielding a net edge spin-polarization. Therefore, the formation of reconstructed divacancies close to the edges of the nanoribbons can be a practical way to make them partially ferromagnetic.
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