Abstract:
We extend a recently introduced separable interaction for the unitary trapped Fermi gas to all values of the scattering length. We derive closed expressions for the interaction matrix elements and the two-particle eigenvectors and analytically demonstrate the convergence of this interaction to the zero-range two-body pseudopotential for s-wave scattering. We apply this effective interaction to the three- and four-particle systems along the BEC-BCS crossover, and find that their low-lying energies exhibit convergence in the regularization parameter that is much faster than for the conventional renormalized contact interaction. We find similar convergence properties of the three-particle free energy at unitarity.

Abstract:
The crossover from weak coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pairing to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of tightly bound pairs, as a function of the attractive interaction in Fermi systems, has long been of interest to theoretical physicists. The past decade has seen a series of remarkable experimental developments in ultracold Fermi gases that has realized the BCS-BEC crossover in the laboratory, bringing with it fresh new insights into the very strongly interacting unitary regime in the middle of this crossover. In this review, we start with a pedagogical introduction to the crossover and then focus on recent progress in the strongly interacting regime. While our focus is on new theoretical developments, we also describe three key experiments that probe the thermodynamics, transport and spectroscopy of the unitary Fermi gas. We discuss connections between the unitary regime and other areas of physics -- quark-gluon plasmas, gauge-gravity duality and high temperature superconductivity -- and conclude with open questions about strongly interacting Fermi gases.

Abstract:
The thermodynamic potential is calculated for a uniform superfluid gas of fermi atoms from the mean field BCS equations including corrections from induced interactions, Hartree-Fock energies and quasiparticle selfenergies. The entropy, specific heat and sound modes are calculated as function of temperature, density and interaction strength from the BCS to the unitarity limit and around the BCS-BEC crossover. The second sound speed is of particular interest as it is a clear signal of a superfluid component and it determines the critical temperature.

Abstract:
We study the BCS-BEC crossover in the strongly correlated regime of an ultra-cold rotating two component Fermi gas. Strong correlations are shown to generate an additional long-range interaction which results in a modified crossover region compared to the non-rotating situation. The two-particle correlation function reveals a smooth crossover between the s-wave paired fermionic fractional quantum Hall state and the bosonic Laughlin state.

Abstract:
We observe dramatic changes in the atomic momentum distribution of a Fermi gas in the region of the BCS-BEC crossover. We study the shape of the momentum distribution and the kinetic energy as a function of interaction strength. The momentum distributions are compared to a mean-field crossover theory, and the kinetic energy is compared to theories for the two weakly interacting limits. The temperature dependence of the distribution is also presented.

Abstract:
We develop a time-dependent mean-field theory to investigate the released momentum distribution and the released energy of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover after the scattering length has been set to zero by a fast magnetic-field ramp. For a homogeneous gas we analyze the non-equilibrium dynamics of the system as a function of the interaction strength and of the ramp speed. For a trapped gas the theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results.

Abstract:
We investigate the crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluidity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a two-dimensional Fermi gas at T=0 using the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. We calculate the equation of state and the gap parameter as a function of the interaction strength, observing large deviations compared to mean-field predictions. In the BEC regime our results show the important role of dimer-dimer and atom-dimer interaction effects that are completely neglected in the mean-field picture. Results on Tan's contact parameter associated with short-range physics are also reported along the BCS-BEC crossover.

Abstract:
We review the BCS-BEC crossover in relativistic Fermi systems, including the QCD matter at finite density. In the first part we study the BCS-BEC crossover in a relativistic four-fermion interaction model and show how the relativistic effect affects the BCS-BEC crossover. In the second part, we investigate both two-color QCD at finite baryon density and pion superfluid at finite isospin density, by using an effective Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We will show how the model describes the weakly interacting diquark and pion condensates at low density and the BEC-BCS crossover at high density.

Abstract:
We present a theory for a superfluid Fermi gas near the BCS-BEC crossover, including pairing fluctuation contributions to the free energy similar to that considered by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink for the normal phase. In the strong coupling limit, our theory is able to recover the Bogoliubov theory of a weakly interacting Bose gas with a molecular scattering length very close to the known exact result. We compare our results with recent Quantum Monte Carlo simulations both for the ground state and at finite temperature. Excellent agreement is found for all interaction strengths where simulation results are available.

Abstract:
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of Fermionic pairs in a uniform two-component Fermi gas obtaining an explicit formula for the condensate density as a function of the chemical potential and the energy gap. We analyze the condensate fraction in the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of weakly-interacting Cooper pairs to the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of molecular dimers. By using the local density approximation we study confined Fermi vapors of alkali-metal atoms for which there is experimental evidence of condensation also on the BCS side of the Feshbach resonance. Our theoretical results are in agreement with these experimental data and give the behavior of the condensate on both sides of the Feshbach resonance at zero temperature.