Abstract:
We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a universe governed by Horava-Lifshitz gravity. Under the equilibrium assumption, that is in the late-time cosmological regime, we calculate separately the entropy time-variation for the matter fluid and, using the modified entropy relation, that of the apparent horizon itself. We find that under detailed balance the generalized second law is generally valid for flat and closed geometry and it is conditionally valid for an open universe, while beyond detailed balance it is only conditionally valid for all curvatures. Furthermore, we also follow the effective approach showing that it can lead to misleading results. The non-complete validity of the generalized second law could either provide a suggestion for its different application, or act as an additional problematic feature of Horava-Lifshitz gravity.

Abstract:
It is well known that by applying the first law of thermodynamics to the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, one can derive the corresponding Friedmann equations in Einstein, Gauss-Bonnet, and more general Lovelock gravity. Is this a generic feature of any gravitational theory? Is the prescription applicable to other gravities? In this paper we would like to address the above questions by examining the same procedure for Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We find that in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, this approach does not work and we fail to reproduce a corresponding Friedmann equation in this theory by applying the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon, together with the appropriate expression for the entropy in Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The reason for this failure seems to be due to the fact that Horava-Lifshitz gravity is not diffeomorphism invariant, and thus, the corresponding field equation cannot be derived from the first law around horizon in the spacetime. Without this, it implies that the specific gravitational theory is not consistent, which shows an additional problematic feature of Horrava-Lifshitz gravity. Nevertheless, if we still take the area formula of geometric entropy and regard Horava-Lifshitz sector in the Friedmann equation as an effective dark radiation, we are able to extract the corresponding Friedmann equation from the first law of thermodynamics.

Abstract:
Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with detailed balance is plagued by the presence of a negative bare (or geometrical) cosmological constant which makes its cosmology clash with observations. We argue that adding the effects of the large vacuum energy of quantum matter fields, this bare cosmological constant can be approximately compensated to account for the small observed (total) cosmological constant. Even though we cannot address the fine-tuning problem in this way, we are able to establish a relation between the smallness of observed cosmological constant and the length scale at which dimension 4 corrections to the Einstein gravity become significant for cosmology. This scale turns out to be approximately 5 times the Planck length for an (almost) vanishing observed cosmological constant and we therefore argue that its smallness guarantees that Lorentz invariance is broken only at very small scales. We are also able to provide a first rough estimation for the infrared values of the parameters of the theory $\mu$ and $Lambda_w$.

Abstract:
Horava-Lifshitz gravity with "detailed balance" but without the projectability assumption is discussed. It is shown that detailed balance is quite efficient in limiting the proliferation of couplings in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, and that its implementation without the projectability assumption leads to a theory with sensible dynamics. However, the (bare) cosmological constant is restricted to be large and negative.

Abstract:
We study linear cosmological perturbations in the ``healthy extension'' of Horava-Lifshitz gravity which has recently been analyzed \cite{BPS2}. We find that there are two degrees of freedom for scalar metric fluctuations, but that one of them decouples in the infrared limit. Also, for appropriate choices of the parameters defining the Lagrangian, the extra mode can be made well-behaved even in the ultraviolet.

Abstract:
At the present paper, it is studied cosmological solutions and its stability in the frame of F(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The perturbations around general spatially flat FRW solutions are analyzed and it is showed that the stability of those solutions will depend on the kind of theory, i.e. on the form of the action F(R), as well as on the parameters contained in any Horava-Lifshitz theory due to the breaking of Lorentz invariance. The (in)stability of a given cosmic solution can restrict the models and gives new observational predictions, and can give a natural explanation on the end of inflation and radiation/matter phases. An explicit example of F(R) is studied, and it is showed that the instability can produce the transition between the different epochs of the Universe history.

Abstract:
This work investigates the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in modi?ed f(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity proposed by Chaichian et al (2010) [Class. Quantum Grav. 27 (2010) 185021], which is invariant under foliation-preserving di?eomorphisms. It has been observed that the equation of state parameter behaves like quintessence (w > -1). We study the thermodynamics of the apparent, event and particle horizons in this modified gravity. We observe that under this gravity, the time derivative of total entropy stays at positive level and hence the generalized second law is validated.

Abstract:
In this paper, the issue how to introduce matter in Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theories of gravity is addressed. This is a key point in order to complete the proper definition of these theories and, what is very important, to study their possible phenomenological implications. As is well known, in Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity the breakdown of Lorentz invariance invalidates the usual notion of minimally coupled matter. Two different approaches to bypass this problem are here described. One is based on a Kaluza-Klein reinterpretation of the 3+1 decomposition of the gravity degrees of freedom, what naturally leads to a definition of a U(1) gauge symmetry and, hence, to a new type of minimal coupling. The other approach relies on a midi-superspace formalism and the subsequent parametrization of the matter stress-energy tensor in terms of deep infrared variables. Using the last option, the phase space of the Horava-Lifshitz cosmology in the presence of general matter couplings is studied. It is found, in particular, that the equation of state of the effective matter may be very different from the actual matter one, owing to the non-linear interactions which exists between matter and gravity.

Abstract:
Using the dynamical system approach, properties of cosmological models based on the Horava-Lifshitz gravity are systematically studied. In particular, the cosmological phase space of the Horava-Lifshitz model is characterized. The analysis allows to compare some key physical consequences of the imposition (or not) of detailed balance. A result of the investigation is that in the detailed balance case one of the attractors in the theory corresponds to an oscillatory behavior. Such oscillations can be associated to a bouncing universe, as previously described by Brandenberger, and will prevent a possible evolution towards a de Sitter universe. Other results obtained show that the cosmological models generated by Horava-Lifshitz gravity without the detailed balance assumption have indeed the potential to describe the transition between the Friedmann and the dark energy eras. The whole analysis leads to the plausible conclusion that a cosmology compatible with the present observations of the universe can be achieved only if the detailed balance condition is broken.

Abstract:
At the present work, it is studied the extension of F (R) gravities to the new recently proposed theory of gravity, the so-called Horava-Lifshitz gravity, which provides a way to make the theory power counting renormalizable by breaking Lorentz invariance. It is showed that dark energy can be well explained in the frame of this extension, just in terms of gravity. It is also explored the possibility to unify inflation and late-time acceleration under the same mechanism, providing a natural explanation the accelerated expansion.