Abstract:
We analyze the properties of stars whose interior is described by the stiffest equation of state consistent with causality. We note the remarkable fact that the entropy of such stars scales like the area.

Abstract:
We consider a periodic lattice structure in $d=2$ or $3$ dimensions with unit cell comprising $Z$ thin elastic members emanating from a similarly situated central node. A general theoretical approach provides an algebraic formula for the effective elasticity of such frameworks. The method yields the effective cubic elastic constants for 3D space-filling lattices with $Z=4$, $6$, $8$, $12$ and $14$, the latter being the "stiffest" lattice proposed by Gurtner and Durand (2014). The analytical expressions provide explicit formulas for the effective properties of pentamode materials, both isotropic and anisotropic, obtained from the general formulation in the stretch dominated limit for $Z=d+1$.

Abstract:
Isostatic networks are minimally rigid and therefore have, generically, nonzero elastic moduli. Regular isostatic networks have finite moduli in the limit of large sizes. However, numerical simulations show that all elastic moduli of geometrically disordered isostatic networks go to zero with system size. This holds true for positional as well as for topological disorder. In most cases, elastic moduli decrease as inverse power-laws of system size. On directed isostatic networks, however, of which the square and cubic lattices are particular cases, the decrease of the moduli is exponential with size. For these, the observed elastic weakening can be quantitatively described in terms of the multiplicative growth of stresses with system size, giving rise to bulk and shear moduli of order exp{-bL}. The case of sphere packings, which only accept compressive contact forces, is considered separately. It is argued that these have a finite bulk modulus because of specific correlations in contact disorder, introduced by the constraint of compressivity. We discuss why their shear modulus, nevertheless, is again zero for large sizes. A quantitative model is proposed that describes the numerically measured shear modulus, both as a function of the loading angle and system size. In all cases, if a density p>0 of overconstraints is present, as when a packing is deformed by compression, or when a glass is outside its isostatic composition window, all asymptotic moduli become finite. For square networks with periodic boundary conditions, these are of order sqrt{p}. For directed networks, elastic moduli are of order exp{-c/p}, indicating the existence of an "isostatic length scale" of order 1/p.

Abstract:
Particular aspects of problems ranging from dielectric breakdown to metal insu- lator transition can be studied using electrical o elastic networks. We present an expression for the mean breakdown strength of such networks.First, we intro- duce a method to evaluate the redistribution of current due to the removal of a finite number of elements from a hyper-cubic network of conducatances.It is used to determine the reduction of breakdown strength due to a fracture of size $\kappa$.Numerical analysis is used to show that the analogous reduction due to random removal of elements from electrical and elastic networks follow a similar form.One possible application, namely the use of bone density as a diagnostic tools for osteorosporosis,is discussed.

Abstract:
Elastic effects in a model of disordered nematic elastomers are numerically investigated in two dimensions. Networks crosslinked in the isotropic phase exhibit unusual soft mechanical response against stretching. It arises from gradual alignment of orientationally correlated regions that are elongated along the director. A sharp crossover to a macroscopically aligned state is obtained on further stretching. The effect of random internal stress is also discussed.

Abstract:
We provide universal formulae for the limiting stretching and bending energies of triangulated membrane networks endowed with nearest neighbor bond potentials and cosine-type dihedral angle potentials. The given formulae account for finite elasticity and solve some deficiencies of earlier results for Helfrich-type bending energies, due to shape-dependence and sensitivity to mesh distortion effects of the limiting elastic coefficients. We also provide the entire set of the elastic coefficients characterizing the limiting response of the examined networks, accounting for full bending-stretching coupling. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed formulae by way of example, on examining the special cases of cylindrical and spherical networks covered with equilateral triangles, and discussing possible strategies for the experimental characterization of selected elastic moduli.

Abstract:
Experiments have shown that elasticity of disordered filamentous networks with compliant crosslinks is very different from networks with rigid crosslinks. Here, we model and analyze filamentous networks as a collection of randomly oriented rigid filaments connected to each other by flexible crosslinks that are modeled as worm-like chains. For relatively large extensions we allow for enthalpic stretching of crosslinks' backbones. We show that for sufficiently high crosslink density, the network linear elastic response is affine on the scale of the filaments' length. The nonlinear regime can become highly nonaffine and is characterized by a divergence of the elastic modulus at finite strain. In contrast to the prior predictions, we do not find an asymptotic regime in which the differential elastic modulus scales linearly with the stress, although an approximate linear dependence can be seen in a transition from entropic to enthalpic regimes. We discuss our results in light of the recent experiments.

Abstract:
Analyzing nonlinear conformational relaxation dynamics in elastic networks corresponding to two classical motor proteins, we find that they respond by well-defined internal mechanical motions to various initial deformations and that these motions are robust against external perturbations. We show that this behavior is not characteristic for random elastic networks. However, special network architectures with such properties can be designed by evolutionary optimization methods. Using them, an example of an artificial elastic network, operating as a cyclic machine powered by ligand binding, is constructed.

Abstract:
We numerically investigate the rigidity percolation transition in two-dimensional flexible, random rod networks with freely rotating cross-links. Near the transition, networks are dominated by bending modes and the elastic modulii vanish with an exponent f=3.0\pm0.2, in contrast with central force percolation which shares the same geometric exponents. This indicates that universality for geometric quantities does not imply universality for elastic ones. The implications of this result for actin-fiber networks is discussed.

Abstract:
The thermodynamics and dynamics of supercooled liquids correlate with their elasticity. In particular for covalent networks, the jump of specific heat is small and the liquid is {\it strong} near the threshold valence where the network acquires rigidity. By contrast, the jump of specific heat and the fragility are large away from this threshold valence. In a previous work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 110, 6307 (2013)], we could explain these behaviors by introducing a model of supercooled liquids in which local rearrangements interact via elasticity. However, in that model the disorder characterizing elasticity was frozen, whereas it is itself a dynamic variable in supercooled liquids. Here we study numerically and theoretically adaptive elastic network models where polydisperse springs can move on a lattice, thus allowing for the geometry of the elastic network to fluctuate and evolve with temperature. We show numerically that our previous results on the relationship between structure and thermodynamics hold in these models. We introduce an approximation where redundant constraints (highly coordinated regions where the frustration is large) are treated as an ideal gas, leading to analytical predictions that are accurate in the range of parameters relevant for real materials. Overall, these results lead to a description of supercooled liquids, in which the distance to the rigidity transition controls the number of directions in phase space that cost energy and the specific heat.