Abstract:
We study the finite density phase transition in the lattice QCD at real chemical potential. We adopt canonical approach and the canonical partition function is constructed for Nf=2 QCD. After derivation of the canonical partition function we calculate observables like the pressure, the quark number density, its second cumulant and the chiral condensate as a function of the real chemical potential. We covered a wide range of temperature region starting from the confining low to the deconfining high temperature. We observe signals for the deconfinement and the chiral restoration phase transition at real chemical potential below Tc starting from the confining phase.

Abstract:
We propose a method to find the QCD critical point at finite density calculating the canonical partition function ${\cal Z}_{\rm C} (T,N)$ by Monte-Carlo simulations of lattice QCD, and analyze data obtained by a simulation with two-flavor p4-improved staggered quarks with pion mass $m_{\pi} \approx 770 {\rm MeV}$. It is found that the shape of an effective potential changes gradually as the temperature decreases and a first order phase transition appears in the low temperature and high density region. This result strongly suggests the existence of the critical point in the $(T, \mu_q)$ phase diagram.

Abstract:
The canonical approach for finite density lattice QCD has a numerical instability. This instability makes it difficult to use the method reliably at the finite real chemical potential region. We studied this instability in detail and found that it is caused by the cancellation of significant digits. In order to reduce the effect of this cancellation, we adopt the multiple precision calculation for our discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) program, and we get the canonical partition function Zc(n,T) with required accuracy. From the obtained Zc(n,T), we calculate Lee--Yang zero distribution varying the number of significant digits. As a result, some curves surround the origin in the fugacity plane, but they are moved by varying the number of significant digits. Hence, we conclude that these curves are pseudo phase transition lines, and not real ones.

Abstract:
Canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros of QCD at finite density and high temperature are studied. Recent lattice simulations have confirmed that the free energy of QCD is a quartic function of quark chemical potential at temperature slightly above pseudo-critical temperature $T_c$, as in the case with a gas of free massless fermions. We present analytic derivation of the canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros for this type of free energy using the saddle point approximation. We also perform lattice QCD simulation in a canonical approach using the fugacity expansion of the fermion determinant, and carefully examine its reliability. By comparing the analytic and numerical results, we conclude that the canonical partition functions follow the Gaussian distribution of the baryon number, and the accumulation of Lee-Yang zeros of these canonical partition functions exhibit the first-order Roberge-Weiss phase transition. We discuss the validity and applicable range of the result and its implications both for theoretical and experimental studies.

Abstract:
We propose a method to probe the nature of phase transitions in lattice QCD at finite temperature and density, which is based on the investigation of an effective potential as a function of the average plaquette. We analyze data obtained in a simulation of two-flavor QCD using p4-improved staggered quarks with bare quark mass $m/T = 0.4$, and find that a first order phase transition line appears in the high density regime for $\mu_q/T \sim 2.5$. The effective potential as a function of the quark number density is also studied. We calculate the chemical potential as a function of the density from the canonical partition function and discuss the existence of the first order phase transition line.

Abstract:
The canonical partition function is related to the grand canonical one through the fugacity expansion and is known to have no sign problem. In this paper we perform the fugacity expansion by a method of the hopping parameter expansion in temporal direction for the lattice QCD: winding number expansion. The canonical partition function is constructed for Nf=2 QCD starting from gauge configurations at zero chemical potential. After derivation of the canonical partition function we calculate hadronic observables like chiral condensate and quark number density and the pressure at the real chemical potential.

Abstract:
We present a reduction method for Wilson Dirac fermions with non-zero chemical potential which generates a dimensionally reduced fermion matrix. The size of the reduced fermion matrix is independent of the temporal lattice extent and the dependence on the chemical potential is factored out. As a consequence the reduced matrix allows a simple evaluation of the Wilson fermion determinant for any value of the chemical potential and hence the exact projection to the canonical partition functions.

Abstract:
With the ongoing experimental interest in exploring the excited hadron spectrum, evaluations of the matrix elements describing the formation and decay of such states via radiative processes provide us with an important connection between theory and experiment. In particular, determinations obtained via the lattice allow for a direct comparison of QCD-expectation with experimental observation. Here we present the first light quark determination of the $\rho \rightarrow \pi \gamma$ transition form factor from lattice QCD using dynamical quarks. Using the PACS-CS 2+1 flavour QCD ensembles we are able to obtain results across a range of masses, to the near physical value of $m_\pi = 157$ MeV. An important aspect of our approach is the use of variational methods to isolate the desired QCD eigenstate. For low-lying states, such techniques facilitate the removal of excited state contributions. In principle the method enables one to consider arbitrary eigenstates. We find our results are in accord with the non-relativistic quark model for heavy masses. In moving towards the light-quark regime we observe an interesting quark mass dependence, contrary to the quark model expectation. Comparison of our light-quark result with experimental determinations highlights a significant discrepancy suggesting that disconnected sea-quark loop contributions may play a significant role in fully describing this process.

Abstract:
we discuss recent results for the phase transition in finite-temperature qcd from numerical (monte carlo) simulations of the lattice-regularized theory. emphasis is given to the case of two degenerate light-quark flavors. the order of the transition in this case, which could have cosmological implications, has not yet been established.

Abstract:
We discuss recent results for the phase transition in finite-temperature QCD from numerical (Monte Carlo) simulations of the lattice-regularized theory. Emphasis is given to the case of two degenerate light-quark flavors. The order of the transition in this case, which could have cosmological implications, has not yet been established.