Abstract:
The fully nonlinear governing equations for spin 1/2 quantum plasmas are presented. Starting from the Pauli equation, the relevant plasma equations are derived, and it is shown that nontrivial quantum spin couplings arise, enabling studies of the combined collective and spin dynamics. The linear response of the quantum plasma in an electron--ion system is obtained and analyzed. Applications of the theory to solid state and astrophysical systems as well as dusty plasmas are pointed out.

Abstract:
The current understanding of some important nonlinear collective processes in quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of quantum plasmas, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wavefunctions that result in tunneling of electrons and the electron degeneracy pressure. Since electrons are Fermions (spin-1/2), there also appears an electron spin current and a spin force acting on electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The quantum effects produce new aspects of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) waves in a quantum plasma that are summarized in here. Furthermore, we discuss nonlinear features of ES ion waves and electron plasma oscillations (ESOs), as well as the trapping of intense EM waves in quantum electron density cavities. Specifically, simulation studies of the coupled nonlinear Schr\"odinger (NLS) and Poisson equations reveal the formation and dynamics of localized ES structures at nanoscales in a quantum plasma. We also discuss the effect of an external magnetic field on the plasma wave spectra and develop quantum magnetohydrodynamic (Q-MHD) equations. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects, in plasma-assisted nanotechnology, and in the next-generation of intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.

Abstract:
Magnetic nanomaterials are considered, formed by magnetic nanomolecules with high spins. The problem of spin reversal in these materials is analyzed, which is of interest for the possible use of such materials for quantum information processing and quantum computing. The fastest spin reversal can be achieved by coupling the spin sample to a resonant electric circuit and by an appropriate choice of the system parameters. A principal point is to choose these parameters so that to organize coherent spin motion. Dynamics of collective motion is modelled by computer simulations, which confirm the high level of dynamical coherence of molecular spins in the process of spin reversal.

Abstract:
Emerging possibilities for creating and studying novel plasma regimes, e.g. relativistic plasmas and dense systems, in a controlled laboratory environment also requires new modeling tools for such systems. This brings motivation for theoretical studies of the kinetic theory governing the dynamics of plasmas for which both relativistic and quantum effects occur simultaneously. Here, we investigate relativistic corrections to the Pauli Hamiltonian in the context of a scalar kinetic theory for spin-1/2 quantum plasmas. In particular, we formulate a quantum kinetic theory that takes such effects as spin-orbit coupling and Zitterbewegung into account for the collective motion of electrons. We discuss the implications and possible applications of our findings.

Abstract:
The spin coherence phenomena and the possibility of their observation in nanomagnetic insulators attract more and more attention in the last several years. Recently it has been shown that in these systems in large transverse magnetic field there can be a fairly narrow "coherence window" for phonon and nuclear spin-mediated decoherence. What kind of spin dynamics can then be expected in this window in a crystal of magnetic nanomolecules coupled to phonons, to nuclear spin bath and it to each other via dipole-dipole interactions? Studying multispin correlations, we determine the region of parameters where "coherent clusters" of collective spin excitations can appear. Although two particular systems, namely crystals of $Fe_8$-triazacyclonane and $Mn_{12}$-acetate molecules, are used in this work to illustrate the results, here we are not trying to predict an existence of collective coherent dynamics in some particular system. Instead, we discuss the way how any crystalline system of dipole-dipole coupled nanomolecules can be analyzed to decide whether this system is suitable for attempts to observe coherent dynamics. The presented analysis can be useful in the search for magnetic systems showing the spin coherence phenomena.

Abstract:
The one-dimensional shock structures of magnetosonic waves (MSWs) propagating in a dissipative quantum plasma medium is studied. A quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is used to take into account the quantum force term due to Bohm potential and the pressure-like spin force term for electrons. The nonlinear evolution (Korteweg de-Vries-Burger) equation, derived to describe the dynamics of small amplitude MSWs, where the dissipation is provided by the plasma resistivity, is solved numerically to obtain both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures. The shock strength decreases with increasing the effects of collective tunneling and increases with increasing the effects of spin alignment. The theoretical results could be of importance for astrophysical (e.g., magnetars) as well as for ultracold laboratory plasmas (e.g., Rydberg plasmas).

Abstract:
We study the excitation dynamics of an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble coupled to a single cavity mode. The collective excitations of the spin ensemble can be described in terms of generalized spin waves and, in the absence of the cavity, the free evolution of the spin ensemble can be described as a drift in the wave number without dispersion. In this article we show that the dynamics in the presence of coupling to the cavity mode can be described solely by a modified time evolution of the wave numbers. In particular, we show that collective excitations with a well- defined wave number pass without dispersion from negative to positive valued wave numbers without populating the zero wave number spin wave mode. The results are relevant for multi-mode collective quantum memories where qubits are encoded in different spin waves.

Abstract:
One of the interesting aspects of the CuO superconductors is that superconductivity is happening so close to the antiferromagnetic state. The nuclear magnetic resonance and the recent neutron scattering experiments clearly indicate that magnetic correlations persist in to the heavily doped regime. In this paper we will discuss some of the details of the coupling of the nuclear magnetic spin to the conduction electron spins. Furthermore we will show that a simple band structure can explain the recent neutron scattering data in the \LaSrCuO material for the optimal concentration of $x\approx 0.15$ if the lifetime effects are included.

Abstract:
There is a renewed interest to study spin-polarized transport and spin dynamics in various electronic materials. The motivation to examine the spin degrees of freedom (mostly in electrons, but also in holes and nuclei) comes from various sources: ranging from novel applications which are either not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics, to using spin-dependent phenomena to explore the fundamental properties of solid state systems. Taken in a broader context, term spintronics is addressing various aspects of these efforts and stimulating new interactions between different subfields of condensed matter physics. Recent advances in material fabrication made it possible to introduce the nonequilibrium spin in novel class of systems, including ferromagnetic semiconductors, high temperature superconductors and carbon nanotubes--which leads to a question of how such a spin could be utilized. For this purpose it is important to extend the understanding of spin-polarized transport and spin dynamics to consider inhomogeneous systems, various heterostructures, and the role of interfaces. This article presents some views on novel aspects of spin-polarized transport and spin dynamics (referring also to the topics which were addressed at the conference Spintronics 2001) and suggests possible future research directions.

Abstract:
Some nonperturbative aspects of spin studies at RHIC are discussed and the predictions for single- and two-spin asymmetries are given. Among them are those which emphasize the role of angular orbital momentum in the spin structure of the constituent quarks.