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Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC  [PDF]
R. L. Jaffe,W. Busza,J. Sandweiss,F. Wilczek
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.72.1125
Abstract: We discuss speculative disaster scenarios inspired by hypothetical new fundamental processes that might occur in high energy relativistic heavy ion collisions. We estimate the parameters relevant to black hole production; we find that they are absurdly small. We show that other accelerator and (especially) cosmic ray environments have already provided far more auspicious opportunities for transition to a new vacuum state, so that existing observations provide stringent bounds. We discuss in most detail the possibility of producing a dangerous strangelet. We argue that four separate requirements are necessary for this to occur: existence of large stable strangelets, metastability of intermediate size strangelets, negative charge for strangelets along the stability line, and production of intermediate size strangelets in the heavy ion environment. We discuss both theoretical and experimental reasons why each of these appears unlikely; in particular, we know of no plausible suggestion for why the third or especially the fourth might be true. Given minimal physical assumptions the continued existence of the Moon, in the form we know it, despite billions of years of cosmic ray exposure, provides powerful empirical evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet production.
An emergent framework of disaster risk governance towards innovating coping capability for reducing disaster risks in local communities
Saburo Ikeda,Toshinari Nagasaka
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13753-011-0006-7
Abstract: An emergent framework of disaster risk governance is presented as an implementation strategy for integrated risk management that incorporates innovative local coping capabilities that reduce disaster vulnerability. This framework calls for enhancement of self-support and mutual-assistance through strengthening informal or social networking efforts in local communities, rather than depending on formal or institutional governmental-assistance. The framework is supported by a societal platform of disaster risk information, called DRIP, which the NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Japan) has developed since 2006 as a tool that promotes improved disaster risk governance. With the help of DRIP, residents, communities, and other stakeholders, linked horizontally or vertically with social networks, can (1) improve their awareness of disaster risks and management issues by sharing risk information as scientific expertise, experiential knowledge, and local/folk wisdom; (2) customize risk communication through analytic deliberation of risk information by employing risk-scenarios developed by residents themselves; (3) develop collaborative activities for informed decision-making that can fully utilize local resources to reorganize coping capability against disaster risks; and (4) disseminate the generated risk scenarios with action plans to other residents who have not participated in the risk communication process.
Scenarios of disaster, visions of liberation  [cached]
Steven Best
Revista Theomai , 2004,
Abstract: As the planet spirals ever deeper into social and natural disaster, with all things becoming ever more tightly knit into the tentacles of global capitalism, there is an urgent need for new maps and compasses to help steer us into a viable mode of existence. Karl Marx′s 1843 call for a ruthless criticism of everything existing has never been more urgent and appropriate, but all too often today critique is merely academic, stratospheres away from concrete action and progressive social policies. Yet, social critique and change in the slaughterhouse of capitalism needs to be guided and informed by powerful descriptions of what is -- the degraded forfeiture of human potential in a world where over a billion people struggle for mere existence -- but also by bold new visions of what can be, imaginative projections of how human beings might harmoniously relate to one another and the living/dying earth
Cognitive Scout Node for Communication in Disaster Scenarios  [PDF]
Rajesh K. Sharma,Anastasia Lavrenko,Dirk Kolb,Reiner S. Thom?
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/160327
Abstract: The cognitive radio (CR) concept has appeared as a promising technology to cope with the spectrum scarcity caused by increased spectrum demand due to the emergence of new applications. CR can be an appropriate mean to establish self-organization and situation awareness at the radio interface, which is highly desired to manage unexpected situations that may happen in a disaster scenario. The scout node proposed in this paper is an extended concept based on a powerful CR node in a heterogeneous nodes environment which takes a leading role for highly flexible, fast, and robust establishment of cooperative wireless links in a disaster situation. This node should have two components: one is a passive sensor unit that collects and stores the technical knowledge about the electromagnetic environment in a data processing unit so-called “radio environment map” in the form of a dynamically updated database, and other is an active transceiver unit which can automatically be configured either as a secondary node for opportunistic communication or as a cooperative base station or access point for primary network in emergency communications. Scout solution can be viable by taking advantage of the technologies used by existing radio surveillance systems in the context of CR. 1. Introduction Communication has been an indispensable part of everyday life in the present days. Apart from making the general life better, modern communications should also be applicable for relief and support to the victims of exceptional adverse situations which include disaster scenarios like earthquakes, floods, cyclones, forest fires and terrorist attacks. Such scenarios impose new requirements on the communication systems. Some of the tasks of a cognitive radio network for emergency situations may be (1) to support specific service requests (higher traffic, coverage, localization, emergency messages, etc.), (2) to re-establish communications in a short time, and (3) to assist rescue forces communications and provide interoperability among them and also among rescue forces and public network. One of the first tasks in disaster is to organize rescue operations in a quick and efficient manner which as well requires rescue forces to be provided with reliable and stable communication facilities. One of the common problems here is providing interoperability among rescue responders originally using different communication standards [1, 2]. In terms of public communication systems, obvious problems in such scenarios are capacity overload with the resulting service denial and absence of coverage
Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots
Daniel P. Stormont,Vicki H. Allan
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2009,
Abstract: Disaster areas are one of the most challenging environments faced by mankind. Uncertainty, hazards, and limited availability of rescuers all impact the ability to save lives. Prepositioned autonomous rescue robots offer promise in assisting the rst responders to a disaster site, but there is a challenge to using robots in hazardous environments: numerous studies have shown that human rescuers lack trust in fully autonomous systems. This paper introduces the aspects of disaster areas that make them so challenging. The use of robots as a risk management tool for human rescuers is introduced. Then some of the factors that limit human trust in robots are addressed – including one of the key factors: reliability. The design of a computer model used to investigate issues of trust and the impact of reliability in a re ghting scenario is discussed and the results are analyzed. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and plans for further work in this area are presented.
The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  [cached]
Benedict F. Malele
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v2i1.14
Abstract: This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.
Information Fusion-Based Storage and Retrieve Algorithms for WSNs in Disaster Scenarios
Zhe Xiao,Ming Huang,Jihong Shi,Wenwei Niu,Jingjing Yang
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/524543
Abstract: Sensor networks are especially useful in catastrophic or disaster scenarios such as abysmal sea, floods, fires, or earthquakes where human participation may be too dangerous. Storage technologies take a critical position for WSNs in such scenarios since the sensor nodes may themselves fail unpredictably, resulting in the loss of valuable data. This paper focuses on fountain code-based data storage and recovery solutions for WSNs in disaster scenarios. A review on current technologies is given on challenges posed by disaster environments. Two information fusion-based distributed storage (IFDS) algorithms are proposed in the “few global knowledge” and “zero-configuration” paradigm, respectively. Correspondingly, a high-efficient retrieve algorithm is designed for general storage algorithms using Robust Soliton distribution. We observe that the successful decoding probability can be provisioned by properly selecting parameters—the ratio of number of source node and total nodes, and the storage capacity M in each node.
Exclusion of black hole disaster scenarios at the LHC
Koch, Benjamin;Bleicher, Marcus;Stoecker, Horst
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2009.01.003
Abstract: The upcoming high energy experiments at the LHC are one of the most outstanding efforts for a better understanding of nature. It is associated with great hopes in the physics community. But there is also some fear in the public, that the conjectured production of mini black holes might lead to a dangerous chain reaction. In this paper we summarize the most straight forward arguments that are necessary to rule out such doomsday scenarios.
Ontology-based collaborative framework for disaster recovery scenarios  [PDF]
Sakkaravarthi Ramanathan,Aymen Kamoun,Khalil Drira,Christophe Chassot
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims at designing of adaptive framework for supporting collaborative work of different actors in public safety and disaster recovery missions. In such scenarios, firemen and robots interact to each other to reach a common goal; firemen team is equipped with smart devices and robots team is supplied with communication technologies, and should carry on specific tasks. Here, reliable connection is mandatory to ensure the interaction between actors. But wireless access network and communication resources are vulnerable in the event of a sudden unexpected change in the environment. Also, the continuous change in the mission requirements such as inclusion/exclusion of new actor, changing the actor's priority and the limitations of smart devices need to be monitored. To perform dynamically in such case, the presented framework is based on a generic multi-level modeling approach that ensures adaptation handled by semantic modeling. Automated self-configuration is driven by rule-based reconfiguration policies through ontology.
DETONANDO A SOCIEDADE TECNOLóGICA: UNABOMBER, O REBELDE EXPLOSIVO.
Jozimar Paes de Almeida
Revista de História Regional , 2007,
Abstract: This article presents some considerations about the radical criticism on technological society elaborated by the Manifesto do Unabomber: The Future of Industrial Society, including a possible historical reflection about this present event which points to the future. Este artigo busca apresentar algumas considera es a respeito da crítica radical da sociedade tecnológica elaborada pelo Manifesto do Unabomber: O futuro da Sociedade industrial, compreendendo a possibilidade de reflex o histórica sobre este acontecimento presente que procura apontar para o futuro.
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