Abstract:
Quantum Mechanics, almost 80 years after its arrival, is a well established and experimentally not falsified theory. It has predicted and explained a whole series of natural phenomena of a very delicate nature. But its interpretation has not gained universal acceptance. Many scientists have considered the conceptual framework of quantum theory to be unsatisfactory. The very foundations of Quantum Mechanics is a matter that needs to be resolved in order to achieve and gain a deep physical understanding of the underlying physical procedures that constitute our world.

Abstract:
It is shown that the formalism of quantum theory naturally incorporates the psychophysical parallelism and thereby interprets itself, if the subjective aspects are taken as equal partners alongside the objective aspects as determinants of Reality as a Whole. The inevitable interplay of the subject (observer) and the object (observed) in making up Reality is brought out succinctly through a comprehensive psychophysical interpretation which includes in its bosom the truths of many of the major interpretations proposed so far as essential ingredients. At the heart of this novel approach lies the interpretation of the complex conjugate quantities such as the conjugate wave function {\Psi}*(r, t), the bra vector <{\Psi}|, and the adjoint operator A{\dag} etc. as representing the subjective counterparts of the corresponding objective aspects represented by the wave function {\Psi}(r, t), the ket vector |{\Psi}>, and the observable A etc. respectively. This brings out the psycho-physical parallelism lying hidden in the quantum mechanical formalism in a quite straightforward manner. The measurement process is shown to be a two-step process comprising objective interaction through the retarded waves and subjective observation leading to rise of knowledge through the advanced waves.

Abstract:
Quantum field theory is mostly known as the most advanced and well-developed theory in physics, which combines quantum mechanics and special relativity consistently. In this work, we study the spinless quantum field theory, namely the Klein-Gordon equation, and we find that there exists a Dirac form of this equation which predicts the existence of spinless fermion. For its understanding, we start from the interpretation of quantum field based on the concept of quantum scope, we also extract new meanings of wave-particle duality and quantum statistics. The existence of spinless fermion is consistent with spin-statistics theorem and also supersymmetry, and it leads to several new kinds of interactions among elementary particles. Our work contributes to the study of spinless quantum field theory and could have implications for the case of higher spin.

Abstract:
This essay is a response to the (March 2000) Physics Today Opinion article "Quantum Theory Needs No Interpretation" by Fuchs and Peres. It was written several years ago and has been collecting electronic dust ever since Physics Today said they weren't interested. We post it here with the hope that it may still be of some interest.

Abstract:
We analyze the question whether or not quantum theory should be used to describe single particles. Our final result is that a rational basis for such an 'individuality interpretation' does not exist. A critical examination of three principles, supporting the individuality interpretation, leads to the result that no one of these principles seems to be realized in nature. The well-known controversy characterized by the names of Einstein (EPR), Bohr and Bell is analyzed. EPR proved 'predictive incompleteness' of quantum theory, which implies that no individuality interpretation exists. Contrary to the common opinion, Bell's proof of 'metaphysical completeness' does not invalidate EPR's proof because two crucially different meanings of 'completeness' are involved. The failure to distinguish between these two meanings is closely related to a fundamentally deterministic world view, which dominated the thinking of the 19th century and determines our thinking even today.

Abstract:
We propose a realistic, spacetime interpretation of quantum theory in which reality constitutes a *single* history obeying a "law of motion" that makes definite, but incomplete, predictions about its behavior. We associate a "quantum measure" |S| to the set S of histories, and point out that |S| fulfills a sum rule generalizing that of classical probability theory. We interpret |S| as a "propensity", making this precise by stating a criterion for |S|=0 to imply "preclusion" (meaning that the true history will not lie in S). The criterion involves triads of correlated events, and in application to electron-electron scattering, for example, it yields definite predictions about the electron trajectories themselves, independently of any measuring devices which might or might not be present. (So we can give an objective account of measurements.) Two unfinished aspects of the interpretation involve *conditonal* preclusion (which apparently requires a notion of coarse-graining for its formulation) and the need to "locate spacetime regions in advance" without the aid of a fixed background metric (which can be achieved in the context of conditional preclusion via a construction which makes sense both in continuum gravity and in the discrete setting of causal set theory).

Abstract:
The notion of equality between two observables will play many important roles in foundations of quantum theory. However, the standard probabilistic interpretation based on the conventional Born formula does not give the probability of equality between two arbitrary observables, since the Born formula gives the probability distribution only for a commuting family of observables. In this paper, quantum set theory developed by Takeuti and the present author is used to systematically extend the standard probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory to define the probability of equality between two arbitrary observables in an arbitrary state. We apply this new interpretation to quantum measurement theory, and establish a logical basis for the difference between simultaneous measurability and simultaneous determinateness.

Abstract:
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is investigated from a philosophical point of view. It is justified the opinion that the philosophical attitude the Copenhagen interpretation is based on is in principle inevitable for a real comprehension of quantum theory. This attitude is mainly related to epistemological arguments. However, the measurement problem often seems not to be treated clearly enough within the interpretation. By referring to the property of the necessity to use macroscopic measurement instruments obeying classical concepts it is made the attempt to solve the measurement problem. According to this consideration the indeterministic character of quantum theory seems to have its origin in a lack of knowledge and thus it appears in a similar but more principle way than in statistical mechanics. It is emphasized the ontological character of the uncertainty relation and the related non locality of quantum theory suggesting that the existence of a position space is not as fundamental as the assumptions of general quantum theory.

Abstract:
In a recent article, Dieks has proposed a way to implement the modal interpretation of (nonrelativistic) quantum theory in relativistic quantum field theory. We show that his proposal fails to yield a well-defined prescription for which observables in a local spacetime region possess definite values. On the other hand, we demonstrate that there is a well-defined and unique way of extending the modal interpretation to the local algebras of relativistic quantum field theory. This extension, however, faces a potentially serious difficulty in connection with ergodic states of a field.

Abstract:
A central feature in the Copenhagen interpretation is the use of classical concepts from the outset. Modern developments show, however, that the emergence of classical properties can be understood within the framework of quantum theory itself, through the process of decoherence. This fact becomes most crucial for the interpretability of quantum cosmology - the application of quantum theory to the Universe as a whole. I briefly review these developments and emphasize the importance of an unbiased attitude on the interpretational side for future progress in physics.