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Steganography in Handling Oversized IP Packets  [PDF]
Wojciech Mazurczyk,Krzysztof Szczypiorski
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: This paper identifies new class of network steganography methods that utilize mechanisms to handle oversized packets in IP networks: IP fragmentation, PMTUD (Path MTU Discovery) and PLPMTUD (Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery). In particular, we propose two new steganographic methods and two extensions of existing ones. We show how IP fragmentation simplifies utilizing steganographic methods which requires transmitter-receiver synchronization. We present how mentioned mechanisms can be used to enable hidden communication for both versions of IP protocol: 4 and 6. Also the detection of the proposed methods is enclosed in this paper.
Analysis on TCP Vegas/RED Based on Fluid-flow and Packets
基于流体流的TCP Vegas/RED分析研究

邓晓衡,陈志刚,张连明
计算机科学 , 2004,
Abstract: 本文采用基于流体流的方法对TCP Vegas协议进行研究分析,同时结合网络结构和主动队列管理机制RED算法进行建模分析,通过网络仿真软件NS2和数学软件matlab分别对TCP Vegas/RED运行情况进行模拟,其结果分别作为协议实验实际值和理论估计值进行比较,实验结果表明模型与实验结果能匹配一致。最后指出本文方法的局限性和进一步研完的方向。
Cluster Based Packet Loss Prediction using TCP ACK packets in Wireless Network
BALAJI V,,DURAISAMY V
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: With the rapid growth of wireless networks, the wireless portion of the network becomes the bottle neck and a major source of congestion. Planning in the area of wireless network becomes crucial for a sturdy network providing expected quality of service. This paper studies the correlation of the tcp ack flag with respect to network congestion. We describe a clustering approaches to determine the status of access point for a given channel. This will help to determine and plan for additional channel allotment during peak loads. We have used the traces collected by wireless monitoring at the 62nd Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meeting held in Minneapolis, MN, March,2005.
Sorting Reordered Packets with Interrupt Coalescing  [PDF]
Wenji Wu,Phil DeMar,Matt Crawford
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2009.05.012
Abstract: TCP performs poorly in networks with serious packet reordering. Processing reordered packets in the TCP layer is costly and inefficient, involving interaction of the sender and receiver. Motivated by the interrupt coalescing mechanism that delivers packets upward for protocol processing in blocks, we propose a new strategy, Sorting Reordered Packets with Interrupt Coalescing (SRPIC), to reduce packet reordering in the receiver. SRPIC works in the network device driver; it makes use of the interrupt coalescing mechanism to sort the reordered packets belonging to the same TCP stream in a block of packets before delivering them upward; each sorted block is internally ordered. Experiments have proven the effectiveness of SRPIC against forward-path reordering.
TCP Trunking  [PDF]
H. T. Kung,S. Y. Wang
Computer Science , 1998,
Abstract: A TCP trunk is an IP tunnel under TCP control, capable of carrying packets from any number of user flows. By exploiting properties of TCP, a TCP trunk provides elastic and reliable transmission over a network, and automatically shares the network fairly with other competing trunks. Moreover, by aggregating user flows into a single trunk flow, TCP trunking can significantly reduce the number of flows that the network needs to manage, thereby allowing use of simplified management to achieve improved perfor mance. For example, when dealing with only a small number of TCP trunk flows, a router with a simple FIFO buffer can experience low packet loss rates. A TCP trunk is a "soft" circuit in the sense that it requires no flow states to be maintained inside the network. Setting up a TCP trunk involves only configuring the two end nodes. This is in contrast with traditional methods of configuring circuits via signaling of network nodes. A simple packet-dropping mechanism based on packet accounting at the transmitter of a TCP trunk assures that, when the trunk reduces its bandwidth in response to network congestion, user TCP flows carried by the trunk will reduce their bandwidths by the same proportion. Simu lation results have demonstrated that TCP trunks can provide improved network performance to users, while achieving high network utilization.
IA-TCP: IMPROVING ACKNOWLEDGEMENT MECHANISM OF TCP FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE IN MANET  [PDF]
Sofiane Hamrioui,Mustapha Lalam,Pascal Lorenz
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications , 2012,
Abstract: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of terminals equipped with one or several wireless network interfaces. In this paper, we suggest an improvement of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), called Improvement of the Acknowledgement mechanism of TCP (IA-TCP), to better performance in MANET. IA-TCP delays the acknowledgements packets of TCP according to the number of nodes, their mobility and the communication distance between these nodes. We limited our studies on very important parameters in such networks which are throughput and end-to-end delay because they have great effects on the TCP performance in MANET. The results are satisfactory and showed that IA-TCP can outperform not only TCP standard, but also similar techniques that have been proposed in the literature like LDA and WCCP.
Performance Analysis of TCP in Mobile ADHOC Networks
Raghuraj Singh,Seeja K.R
International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: — The most popular transport layer protocol TCP on the Internet offers reliable byte stream service. In this, packets are cumulatively acknowledged (ACK) as they arrive in sequence and out of sequence packets will cause generation of duplicate ACKs. TCP was basically developed for implementing on wired networks where it has less bit error rates (BER) and hence less packet losses without considering mobility factors. For better performance of TCP in a mobile network, loss due to wireless link error must be detected immediately and transmission resumed as quickly as possible.
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF TCP-RENO, TCP- NEWRENO AND TCP-VEGAS ON AN OBS NETWORK  [PDF]
Ratna Pavani.K,N.Sreenath
International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: In TCP over OBS networks, packets from various IP sources assemble into a data burst at the ingress node and are transmitted to egress node cutting through the core network all-optically. The control packet always precedes the data burst by an offset time. This time gap between the control packet and the data burst is adequate to process the burst header packet and configure the switches at the core nodes. These switches down the route are configured only when the data burst arrives to facilitate the burst to cut through an all-optical path. The basic assumption of TCP variants is that the transmitting physical medium is electronic and packets are experiencing delay due to IP routers, but with TCP over OBS networks there will be a change in performance of TCP flavours due to the underlying network. In these conditions an experimental study was made to evaluate the performance of three popular TCP variants, TCP-Reno, TCP-Newreno and TCP-Vegas using NS-2.
TCP over IEEE 802.11  [PDF]
P. Chenna Reddy
Annals. Computer Science Series , 2009,
Abstract: IEEE 802.11 is a widely used wireless LAN standard for medium access control. TCP is a prominent transport protocol originally designed for wired networks. TCP treats packet loss as congestion and reduces the data rate. In wireless networks packets are lost not only due to congestion but also due to various other reasons. Hence there is need for making TCP adaptable to wireless networks. Various parameters of TCP and IEEE 802.11 can be set to appropriate values to achieve optimum performance results. In this paper optimum values for various parameters of IEEE 802.11 are determined. Network simulator NS2 is used for simulation.
TCP over IEEE 802.11  [PDF]
P. Chenna Reddy
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: IEEE 802.11 is a widely used wireless LAN standard for medium access control. TCP is a prominent transport protocol originally designed for wired networks. TCP treats packet loss as congestion and reduces the data rate. In wireless networks packets are lost not only due to congestion but also due to various other reasons. Hence there is need for making TCP adaptable to wireless networks. Various parameters of TCP and IEEE 802.11 can be set to appropriate values to achieve optimum performance results. In this paper optimum values for various parameters of IEEE 802.11 are determined. Network simulator NS2 is used for simulation.
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