Abstract:
After a review of the existing theory of non-inertial frames and mathematical observers in Minkowski space-time we give the explicit expression of a family of such frames obtained from the inertial ones by means of point-dependent Lorentz transformations as suggested by the locality principle. These non-inertial frames have non-Euclidean 3-spaces and contain the differentially rotating ones in Euclidean 3-spaces as a subcase. Then we discuss how to replace mathematical accelerated observers with dynamical ones (their world-lines belong to interacting particles in an isolated system) and of how to define Unruh-DeWitt detectors without using mathematical Rindler uniformly accelerated observers. Also some comments are done on the transition from relativistic classical mechanics to relativistic quantum mechanics in non-inertial frames.

We can not only bring time operator in quantum mechanics (non-relativistic) but also determine its Eigen value, commutation relation of its square with energy and some of the properties of time operator like either it is Hermitian or not, either its expectation value is real or complex for a wave packet etc. Exactly these are what I have done.

Abstract:
The kinematic time operator can be naturally defined in relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (QM) by treating time on an equal footing with space. The spacetime-position operator acts in the Hilbert space of functions of space and time. Dynamics, however, makes eigenstates of the time operator unphysical. This poses a problem for the standard interpretation of QM and reinforces the role of alternative interpretations such as the Bohmian one. The Bohmian interpretation, despite of being nonlocal in accordance with the Bell theorem, is shown to be relativistic covariant.

Abstract:
Hamiltonian operators are gauge dependent. For overcome this difficulty we reexamined the effect of a gauge transformation on Schr\"odinger and Dirac equations. We show that the gauge invariance of the operator $H-i\hbar\frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ provides a way to find the energy operator from first principles. In particular, when the system has stationary states the energy operator can be identified without ambiguities for non-relativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. Finally, we examine other approaches finding that in the case in which the electromagnetic field is time independent, the energy operator obtained here is the same as one recently proposed by Chen et al. [1].

Abstract:
Aharonov-Kaufherr model of quantum space-time which accounts Reference Frames (RF) quantum effects is considered in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics framework. For RF connected with some macroscopic object its free quantum motion - wave packet smearing results in additional uncertainty of test particle coordinate. Due to the same effects the use of Galilean or Lorentz transformations for this RFs becomes incorrect and the special quantum space-time transformations are introduced. In particular for any RF the proper time becomes the operator in other RF. This time operator calculated solving relativistic Heisenberg equations for some quantum clocks models. Generalized Klein- Gordon equation proposed which depends on both the particle and RF masses.

Abstract:
We start reviewing Giulini's dynamical approach to Bargmann superselection rule proposing some improvements. We discuss some general features of the central extensions of the Galileian group used in Giulini's programme, focussing on the interplay of classical and quantum picture, without making any particular choice for the multipliers. Preserving other features of Giulini's approach, we modify the mass operator of a Galilei invariant quantum system to obtain a mass spectrum that is positive and discrete, giving rise to a standard (non-continuous) superselection rule. The model is invariant under time reversal but a further degree of freedom appears, interpreted as an internal conserved charge. (However, adopting a POVM approach a positive mass operator arises without assuming the existence of such a charge.) The effectiveness of Bargmann rule is shown to be equivalent to an averaging procedure over the unobservable degrees of freedom of the central extension of Galileo group. Moreover, viewing the Galileian invariant quantum mechanics as a non-relativistic limit, we prove that the above-mentioned averaging procedure giving rise to Bargmann superselection rule is nothing but an effective de-coherence phenomenon due to time evolution if assuming that real measurements includes a temporal averaging procedure. It happens when the added term $Mc^2$ is taken in the due account in the Hamiltonian operator since, in the dynamical approach, the mass $M$ is an operator and cannot be trivially neglected as in classical mechanics. The presented results are quite general and rely upon the only hypothesis that the mass operator has point-wise spectrum. These results explicitly show the interplay of the period of time of the averaging procedure, the energy content of the considered states, and the minimal difference of the mass operator eigenvalues.

Abstract:
Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or ``local'') quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce --in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework-- a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into tensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called zitterbewegung, which is the spin ``internal'' motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework, i.e. in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelung fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector.

Abstract:
There have been great theoretical and practical interests in investigating time problem in quantum mechanics. Because time enters quantum mechanics as a parameter rather than a dynamical operator, people have to consider how to construct a time operator and calculate average time whenever they are faced with a time problem related to a physical process. In this paper we present a general investigation on time operator and average time.

Abstract:
A consistent classical and quantum relativistic mechanics can be constructed if Einstein's covariant time is considered as a dynamical variable. The evolution of a system is then parametrized by a universal invariant identified with Newton's time. This theory, originating in the work of Stueckelberg in 1941, contains many questions of interpretation, reaching deeply into the notions of time, localizability, and causality. Some of the basic ideas are discussed here, and as an example, the solution of the two body problem with invariant action-at-a-distance potential is given. A proper generalization of the Maxwell theory of electromagnetic interaction, implied by the Stueckelberg-Schr\"odinger dynamical evolution equation and its physical implications are also discussed. It is also shown that a similar construction occurs, applying similar ideas, in the theory of gravitation.

Abstract:
In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and in relativistic quantum field theory, time t is a parameter and thus the time-reversal operator T does not actually reverse the sign of t. However, in relativistic quantum mechanics the time coordinate t and the space coordinates x are treated on an equal footing and all are operators. In this paper it is shown how to extend PT symmetry from nonrelativistic to relativistic quantum mechanics by implementing time reversal as an operation that changes the sign of the time coordinate operator t. Some illustrative relativistic quantum-mechanical models are constructed whose associated Hamiltonians are non-Hermitian but PT symmetric, and it is shown that for each such Hamiltonian the energy eigenvalues are all real.