Abstract:
We derive universal properties of nonlinear response functions of nonequilibrium steady states. In particular, sum rules and asymptotic behaviors are derived. Their consequences are illustrated for nonlinear optical materials and nonlinear electrical conductors.

Abstract:
We derive general properties of the linear response functions of nonequilibrium steady states in Langevin systems. These correspond to extension of the results which were recently found in Hamiltonian systems [A. Shimizu and T. Yuge, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. {\bf 79}, 013002 (2010)]. We discuss one of the properties, the sum rule for the response function, in particular detail. We show that the sum rule for the response function of the velocity holds in the underdamped case, whereas it is violated in the overdamped case. This implies that the overdamped Langevin models should be used with great care. We also investigate the relation of the sum rule to an equality on the energy dissipation in nonequilibrium Langevin systems, which was derived by Harada and Sasa.

Abstract:
We propose and analyze a new candidate Lyapunov function for relaxation towards general nonequilibrium steady states. The proposed functional is obtained from the large time asymptotics of time-symmetric fluctuations. For driven Markov jump or diffusion processes it measures an excess in dynamical activity rates. We present numerical evidence and we report on a rigorous argument for its monotonous time-dependence close to the steady nonequilibrium or in general after a long enough time. This is in contrast with the behavior of approximate Lyapunov functions based on entropy production that when driven far from equilibrium often keep exhibiting temporal oscillations even close to stationarity.

Abstract:
The Einstein relation, relating the steady state fluctuation properties to the linear response to a perturbation, is considered for steady states of stochastic models with a finite state space. We show how an Einstein relation always holds if the steady state satisfies detailed balance. More generally, we consider nonequilibrium steady states where detailed balance does not hold and show how a generalisation of the Einstein relation may be derived in certain cases. In particular, for the asymmetric simple exclusion process and a driven diffusive dimer model, the external perturbation creates and annihilates particles thus breaking the particle conservation of the unperturbed model.

Abstract:
We derive a general expression for the electron nonequilibrium (NE) distribution function in the context of steady state quantum transport through a two-terminal nanodevice with interaction. The central idea for the use of NE distributions for open quantum systems is that both the NE and many-body (MB) effects are taken into account in the statistics of the finite size system connected to reservoirs. We develop an alternative scheme to calculate the NE steady state properties of such systems. The method, using NE distribution and spectral functions, presents several advantages, and is equivalent to conventional steady-state NE Green's functions (NEGF) calculations when the same level of approximation for the MB interaction is used. The advantages of our method resides in the fact that the NE distribution and spectral functions have better analytic behaviour for numerical calculations. Furthermore our approach offer the possibility of introducing further approximations, not only at the level of the MB interaction as in NEGF, but also at the level of the functional form used for the NE distributions. For the single level model with electron-phonon coupling we have considered, such approximations provide a good representation of the exact results, for either the NE distributions themselves or the transport properties. We also derive the formal extensions of our method for systems consisting of several electronic levels and several vibration modes.

Abstract:
Transitions between nonequilibrium steady states obey a generalized Clausius inequality, which becomes an equality in the quasistatic limit. For slow but finite transitions, we show that the behavior of the system is described by a response matrix whose elements are given by a far-from-equilibrium Green-Kubo formula, involving the decay of correlations evaluated in the nonequilibrium steady state. This result leads to a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the mean and variance of the nonadiabatic entropy production, $\Delta s_{\rm na}$. Furthermore, our results extend -- to nonequilibrium steady states -- the thermodynamic metric structure introduced by Sivak and Crooks for analyzing minimal-dissipation protocols for transitions between equilibrium states.

Abstract:
Excess work is a non-diverging part of the work during transition between nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). It is a central quantity in the steady state thermodynamics (SST), which is a candidate for nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory. We derive an expression of excess work during quasistatic transitions between NESSs by using the macroscopic linear response relation of NESS. This expression is a line integral of a vector potential in the space of control parameters. We show a relationship between the vector potential and the response function of NESS, and thus obtain a relationship between the SST and a macroscopic quantity. We also connect the macroscopic formulation to microscopic physics through a microscopic expression of the nonequilibrium response function, which gives a result consistent with the previous studies.

Abstract:
The emergence of non-gaussian distributions for macroscopic quantities in nonequilibrium steady states is discussed with emphasis on the effective criticality and on the ensuing universality of distribution functions. The following problems are treated in more detail: nonequilibrium interface fluctuations (the problem of upper critical dimension of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), roughness of signals displaying Gaussian 1/f power spectra (the relationship to extreme-value statistics), effects of boundary conditions (randomness of the digits of pi).

Abstract:
We derive some nonequilibrium identities such as the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality starting from a nonequilibrium state for dissipative classical systems. Thanks to the existence of the integral fluctuation theorem we can naturally introduce an entropy-like quantity for dissipative classical systems in far from equilibrium states. We also derive the generalized Green-Kubo formula as a nonlinear response theory for a steady dynamics around a nonequilibrium state. We numerically verify the validity of the derived formulas for sheared frictionless granular particles.

Abstract:
By mapping steady-state nonequilibrium to an effective equilibrium, we formulate nonequilibrium problems within an equilibrium picture where we can apply existing equilibrium many-body techniques to steady-state electron transport problems. We study the analytic properties of many-body scattering states, reduce the boundary condition operator in a simple form and prove that this mapping is equivalent to the correct linear-response theory. In an example of infinite-U Anderson impurity model, we approximately solve for the scattering state creation operators, based on which we derive the bias operator Y to construct the nonequilibrium ensemble in the form of the Boltzmann factor exp(-beta(H-Y)). The resulting Hamiltonian is solved by the non-crossing approximation. We obtain the Kondo anomaly conductance at zero bias, inelastic transport via the charge excitation on the quantum dot and significant inelastic current background over a wide range of bias. Finally, we propose a self-consistent algorithm of mapping general steady-state nonequilibrium.