Abstract:
In this paper we mainly focus on the curvature perturbation generated at the end of multi-field inflation, such as the multi-brid inflation. Since the curvature perturbation is produced on the super-horizon scale, the bispectrum and trispectrum have a local shape. The size of bispectrum is measured by $f_{NL}$ and the trispectrum is characterized by two parameters $\tau_{NL}$ and $g_{NL}$. For simplicity, the trajectory of inflaton is assumed to be a straight line in the field space and then the entropic perturbations do not contribute to the curvature perturbation during inflation. As long as the background inflaton path is not orthogonal to the hyper-surface for inflation to end, the entropic perturbation can make a contribution to the curvature perturbation at the end of inflation and a large local-type non-Gaussiantiy is expected. An interesting thing is that the non-Gaussianity parameters are completely determined by the geometric properties of the hyper-surface of the end of inflation. For example, $f_{NL}$ is proportional to the curvature of the curve on this hyper-surface along the adiabatic direction and $g_{NL}$ is related to the change of the curvature radius per unit arc-length of this curve. Both $f_{NL}$ and $g_{NL}$ can be positive or negative respectively, but $\tau_{NL}$ must be positive and not less than $({6\over 5}f_{NL})^2$.

Abstract:
This paper is based on a talk given by A R Liddle at the PASCOS/TEXAS meeting in December 1992, and will appear in the proceedings. The central result is that all known models of inflation which end in a first order phase transition can be ruled out by combining galaxy surveys at a few tens of Mpc with the COBE data (including the effect of gravitational waves). This conclusion is based on the work described in A R Liddle and D H Lyth, Phys Lett B 291 (1992) 391.

Abstract:
We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, $f_{NL}$, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.

Abstract:
We discuss generation of non-Gaussianity in density perturbation through the super-horizon evolution during inflation by using the so-called $\delta N$ formalism. We first provide a general formula for the non-linearity parameter generated during inflation. We find that it is proportional to the slow-roll parameters, multiplied by the model dependent factors that may enhance the non-gaussianity to the observable ranges. Then we discuss three typical examples to illustrate how difficult to generate sizable non-Gaussianity through the super-horizon evolution. First example is the double inflation model, which shows that temporal violation of slow roll conditions is not enough for the generation of non-Gaussianity. Second example is the ordinary hybrid inflation model, which illustrates the importance of taking into account perturbations on small scales. Finally, we discuss Kadota-Stewart model. This model gives an example in which we have to choose rather unnatural initial conditions even if large non-Gaussianity can be generated.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider large non-Gaussianity generated after D-term inflation in the case that the adiabatic curvature perturbation produced is dominated by a right-handed (RH) sneutrino curvaton. The cosmic string problem can also be evaded with around 10% contribution to the CMB power spectrum and the spectral index $n_s \simeq 1$. The non-Gaussianity produced can be as large as $10

Abstract:
We study the generation of non-Gaussianity in models of hybrid inflation with two inflaton fields, (2-brid inflation). We analyse the region in the parameter and the initial condition space where a large non-Gaussianity may be generated during slow-roll inflation which is generally characterised by a large f_NL, tau_NL and a small g_NL. For certain parameter values we can satisfy tau_NL>>f_NL^2. The bispectrum is of the local type but may have a significant scale dependence. We show that the loop corrections to the power spectrum and bispectrum are suppressed during inflation, if one assume that the fields follow a classical background trajectory. We also include the effect of the waterfall field, which can lead to a significant change in the observables after the waterfall field is destabilised, depending on the couplings between the waterfall and inflaton fields.

Abstract:
We consider primordial fluctuations in thermal inflation scenario. Since the thermal inflation drives about 10 $e$-folds after the standard inflation, the time of horizon-exit during inflation corresponding to the present observational scale shifts toward the end of inflation. It generally makes the primordial power spectrum more deviated from a scale-invariant one and hence renders some models inconsistent with observations. We present a mechanism of generating the primordial curvature perturbation at the end of thermal inflation utilizing a fluctuating coupling of a flaton field with the fields in thermal bath. We show that, by adopting the mechanism, some inflation models can be liberated even in the presence of the thermal inflation. We also discuss non-Gaussianity in the mechanism and show that large non-Gaussianity can be generated in this scenario.

Abstract:
In this review, we discuss how non-Gaussianity of cosmological perturbations arises from inflation. After introducing the in-in formalism to calculate the $n$-point correlation function of quantum fields, we present the computation of the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation generated in general single field inflation models. The shapes of the bispectrum are compared with the local-type non-Gaussianity that arises from non-linear dynamics on super-horizon scales.

Abstract:
Correlated adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation modes are produced during inflation through an oscillation mechanism when extra scalar degrees of freedom other than the inflaton field are present. We show that this correlation generically leads to sizeable non-Gaussian features both in the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. The non-Gaussianity is first generated by large non-linearities in some scalar sector and then efficiently transferred to the inflaton sector by the oscillation process. We compute the cosmic microwave background angular bispectrum, providing a characteristic feature of such inflationary non-Gaussianity,which might be detected by upcoming satellite experiments.

Abstract:
A model of multi-component hybrid inflation, dubbed multi-brid inflation, in which various observable quantities including the non-Gaussianity parameter f_{NL} can be analytically calculated was proposed recently. In particular, for a two-brid inflation model with an exponential potential and the condition that the end of inflation is an ellipse in the field space, it was found that, while keeping the other observational quantities within the range consistent with observations, large non-Gaussianity is possible for certain inflationary trajectories, provided that the ratio of the two masses is large. One might question whether the resulting large non-Gaussianity is specific to this particular form of the potential and the condition for the end of inflation. In this paper, we consider a model of multi-brid inflation with a potential given by an exponential function of terms quadratic in the scalar field components. We also consider a more general class of ellipses for the end of inflation than those studied previously. Then, focusing on the case of two-brid inflation, we find that large non-Gaussianity is possible in the present model even for the equal-mass case. Then by tuning the model parameters, we find that there exist models for which both the non-Gaussianity and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are large enough to be detected in the very near future.