Abstract:
If quantum gravity violates Lorentz symmetry, the prospects for observational guidance in understanding quantum gravity improve considerably. This article briefly reviews previous work on Lorentz violation (LV) and discusses aspects of the effective field theory framework for parametrizing LV effects. Current observational constraints on LV are then summarized, focusing on effects in QED at order E/M_Planck.

Abstract:
The role of the gravitational sector in the Lorentz- and CPT-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME) is studied. A framework is developed for addressing this topic in the context of Riemann-Cartan spacetimes, which include as limiting cases the usual Riemann and Minkowski geometries. The methodology is first illustrated in the context of the QED extension in a Riemann-Cartan background. The full SME in this background is then considered, and the leading-order terms in the SME action involving operators of mass dimension three and four are constructed. The incorporation of arbitrary Lorentz and CPT violation into general relativity and other theories of gravity based on Riemann-Cartan geometries is discussed. The dominant terms in the effective low-energy action for the gravitational sector are provided, thereby completing the formulation of the leading-order terms in the SME with gravity. Explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking is found to be incompatible with generic Riemann-Cartan geometries, but spontaneous Lorentz breaking evades this difficulty.

Abstract:
In general relativity, gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, and so gravitons are massless. The masslessness can be traced to symmetry under diffeomorphisms. However, another elegant possibility exists: masslessness can instead arise from spontaneous violation of local Lorentz invariance. We construct the corresponding theory of gravity. It reproduces the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity at low energies and temperatures. Detectable signals occur for sensitive experiments, and potentially profound implications emerge for our theoretical understanding of gravity.

Abstract:
A quantum gravity theory which becomes renormalizable at short distances due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking of Lorentz invariance and diffeomorphism invariance is studied. A breaking of Lorentz invariance with the breaking patterns $SO(3,1)\to O(3)$ and $SO(3,1)\to O(2)$, describing 3+1 and 2+1 quantum gravity, respectively, is proposed. A complex time dependent Schr\"odinger equation (generalized Wheeler-DeWitt equation) for the wave function of the universe exists in the spontaneously broken symmetry phase at Planck energy and in the early universe, uniting quantum mechanics and general relativity. An explanation of the second law of thermodynamics and the spontaneous creation of matter in the early universe can be obtained in the symmetry broken phase of gravity.

Abstract:
We investigate a class of theories involving a symmetric two-tensor field in Minkowski spacetime with a potential triggering spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry. The resulting massless Nambu-Goldstone modes are shown to obey the linearized Einstein equations in a fixed gauge. Imposing self-consistent coupling to the energy-momentum tensor constrains the potential for the Lorentz violation. The nonlinear theory generated from the self-consistent bootstrap is an alternative theory of gravity, containing kinetic and potential terms along with a matter coupling. At energies small compared to the Planck scale, the theory contains general relativity, with the Riemann-spacetime metric constructed as a combination of the two-tensor field and the Minkowski metric. At high energies, the structure of the theory is qualitatively different from general relativity. Observable effects can arise in suitable gravitational experiments.

Abstract:
We consider a theory of gravity in which a symmetric two-index tensor in Minkowski spacetime acquires a vacuum expectation value (vev) via a potential, thereby breaking Lorentz invariance spontaneously. When the vev breaks all the generators of the Lorentz group, six Goldstone modes emerge, two linear combinations of which have properties that are identical to those of the graviton in general relativity. Integrating out massive modes yields an infinite number of Lorentz-violating radiative-correction terms in the low-energy effective Lagrangian. We examine a representative subset of these terms and show that they modify the dispersion relation of the two propagating graviton modes such that their phase velocity is direction-dependent. If the phase velocity of the Goldstone gravitons is subluminal, cosmic rays can emit gravi-Cherenkov radiation, and the detection of high-energy cosmic rays can be used to constrain these radiative correction terms. Test particles in the vicinity of the Goldstone gravitons undergo longitudinal oscillations in addition to the usual transverse oscillations as predicted by general relativity. Finally, we discuss the possibility of having vevs that do not break all six generators and examine in detail one such theory.

Abstract:
Much research has been done in the latter years on the subject of Lorentz violation induced by Quantum Gravity effects. On the theoretical side it has been shown that both Loop Quantum Gravity and String Theory predict that Lorentz violation can be induced at an energy near to the Planck scale. On the other hand, most of the experimental results in the latter years, have confirmed that the laws of physics are Lorentz invariant at low energy with very high accuracy. The inclusion of one- and two-loop contributions from a Lorentz violating Lagrangian dramatically change the above picture: the loop momenta run into the Planck scale and above and from the "divergent" terms finite Lorentz violating contributions of order one arise. These can be suppressed through suitable counterterms in the Lagrangian, originating a strong fine tuning problem. A brief discussion of these issues and their possible influence in future research follows.

Abstract:
The gravitational couplings of matter are studied in the presence of Lorentz and CPT violation. At leading order in the coefficients for Lorentz violation, the relativistic quantum hamiltonian is derived from the gravitationally coupled minimal Standard-Model Extension. For spin-independent effects, the nonrelativistic quantum hamiltonian and the classical dynamics for test and source bodies are obtained. A systematic perturbative method is developed to treat small metric and coefficient fluctuations about a Lorentz-violating and Minkowski background. The post-newtonian metric and the trajectory of a test body freely falling under gravity in the presence of Lorentz violation are established. An illustrative example is presented for a bumblebee model. The general methodology is used to identify observable signals of Lorentz and CPT violation in a variety of gravitational experiments and observations, including gravimeter measurements, laboratory and satellite tests of the weak equivalence principle, antimatter studies, solar-system observations, and investigations of the gravitational properties of light. Numerous sensitivities to coefficients for Lorentz violation can be achieved in existing or near-future experiments at the level of parts in 10^3 down to parts in 10^{15}. Certain coefficients are uniquely detectable in gravitational searches and remain unmeasured to date.

Abstract:
In general relativity, the masslessness of gravitons can be traced to symmetry under diffeomorphisms. Here we consider another possibility, whereby the masslessness arises from spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry.

Abstract:
The pure-gravity sector of the minimal Standard-Model Extension is studied in the limit of Riemann spacetime. A method is developed to extract the modified Einstein field equations in the limit of small metric fluctuations about the Minkowski vacuum, while allowing for the dynamics of the 20 independent coefficients for Lorentz violation. The linearized effective equations are solved to obtain the post-newtonian metric. The corresponding post-newtonian behavior of a perfect fluid is studied and applied to the gravitating many-body system. Illustrative examples of the methodology are provided using bumblebee models. The implications of the general theoretical results are studied for a variety of existing and proposed gravitational experiments, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, laboratory experiments with gravimeters and torsion pendula, measurements of the spin precession of orbiting gyroscopes, timing studies of signals from binary pulsars, and the classic tests involving the perihelion precession and the time delay of light. For each type of experiment considered, estimates of the attainable sensitivities are provided. Numerous effects of local Lorentz violation can be studied in existing or near-future experiments at sensitivities ranging from parts in 10^4 down to parts in 10^{15}.