Abstract:
We present various results on the properties of the four infinite sets of the exceptional $X_{\ell}$ polynomials discovered recently by Odake and Sasaki [{\it Phys. Lett. B} {\bf 679} (2009), 414-417; {\it Phys. Lett. B} {\bf 684} (2010), 173-176]. These $X_{\ell}$ polynomials are global solutions of second order Fuchsian differential equations with $\ell+3$ regular singularities and their confluent limits. We derive equivalent but much simpler looking forms of the $X_{\ell}$ polynomials. The other subjects discussed in detail are: factorisation of the Fuchsian differential operators, shape invariance, the forward and backward shift operations, invariant polynomial subspaces under the Fuchsian differential operators, the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalisation procedure, three term recurrence relations and the generating functions for the $X_{\ell}$ polynomials.

Abstract:
An interesting discovery in the last two years in the field of mathematical physics has been the exceptional $X_\ell$ Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials. Unlike the well-known classical orthogonal polynomials which start with constant terms, these new polynomials have the lowest degree $\ell=1,2,...$, and yet they form complete sets with respect to some positive-definite measure. In this paper, we study one important aspect of these new polynomials, namely, the behaviors of their zeros as some parameters of the Hamiltonians change.

Abstract:
It has been recently discovered that exceptional families of Sturm-Liouville orthogonal polynomials exist, that generalize in some sense the classical polynomials of Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi. In this paper we show how new families of exceptional orthogonal polynomials can be constructed by means of multiple-step algebraic Darboux transformations. The construction is illustrated with an example of a 2-step Darboux transformation of the classical Laguerre polynomials, which gives rise to a new orthogonal polynomial system indexed by two integer parameters. For particular values of these parameters, the classical Laguerre and the type II $X_\ell$-Laguerre polynomials are recovered.

Abstract:
Two sets of infinitely many exceptional orthogonal polynomials related to the Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials are presented. They are derived as the eigenfunctions of shape invariant and thus exactly solvable quantum mechanical Hamiltonians, which are deformations of those for the Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials in terms of a degree \ell (\ell=1,2,...) eigenpolynomial. These polynomials are exceptional in the sense that they start from degree \ell\ge1 and thus not constrained by any generalisation of Bochner's theorem.

Abstract:
Simple derivation is presented of the four families of infinitely many shape invariant Hamiltonians corresponding to the exceptional Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials. Darboux-Crum transformations are applied to connect the well-known shape invariant Hamiltonians of the radial oscillator and the Darboux-P\"oschl-Teller potential to the shape invariant potentials of Odake-Sasaki. Dutta and Roy derived the two lowest members of the exceptional Laguerre polynomials by this method. The method is expanded to its full generality and many other ramifications, including the aspects of generalised Bochner problem and the bispectral property of the exceptional orthogonal polynomials, are discussed.

Abstract:
An alternative derivation is presented of the infinitely many exceptional Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials, which were introduced by the present authors in 2009. Darboux-Crum transformations intertwining the discrete quantum mechanical systems of the original and the exceptional polynomials play an important role. Infinitely many continuous Hahn polynomials are derived in the same manner. The present method provides a simple proof of the shape invariance of these systems as in the corresponding cases of the exceptional Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials.

Abstract:
An interesting discovery in the last two years in the field of mathematical physics has been the exceptional $X_\ell$ Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials. Unlike the well-known classical orthogonal polynomials which start with constant terms, these new polynomials have lowest degree $\ell=1,2,...$, and yet they form complete set with respect to some positive-definite measure. While the mathematical properties of these new $X_\ell$ polynomials deserve further analysis, it is also of interest to see if they play any role in physical systems. In this paper we indicate some physical models in which these new polynomials appear as the main part of the eigenfunctions. The systems we consider include the Dirac equations coupled minimally and non-minimally with some external fields, and the Fokker-Planck equations. The systems presented here have enlarged the number of exactly solvable physical systems known so far.

Abstract:
We provide analytic proofs for the shape invariance of the recently discovered (Odake and Sasaki, Phys. Lett. B679 (2009) 414-417) two families of infinitely many exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum mechanical potentials. These potentials are obtained by deforming the well-known radial oscillator potential or the Darboux-P\"oschl-Teller potential by a degree \ell (\ell=1,2,...) eigenpolynomial. The shape invariance conditions are attributed to new polynomial identities of degree 3\ell involving cubic products of the Laguerre or Jacobi polynomials. These identities are proved elementarily by combining simple identities.

Abstract:
We present a new family of shape invariant potentials which could be called a ``continuous \ell version" of the potentials corresponding to the exceptional (X_{\ell}) J1 Jacobi polynomials constructed recently by the present authors. In a certain limit, it reduces to a continuous \ell family of shape invariant potentials related to the exceptional (X_{\ell}) L1 Laguerre polynomials. The latter was known as one example of the `conditionally exactly solvable potentials' on a half line.

Abstract:
The exceptional Racah and q-Racah polynomials are constructed. Together with the exceptional Laguerre, Jacobi, Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials discovered by the present authors in 2009, they exhaust the generic exceptional orthogonal polynomials of a single variable.