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Overseeded of oat cultivars in grazing African star with different wastes managed forage Sobressemeadura de cultivares de aveia em pastagem de estrelaafricana manejada com diferentes resíduos de forragem  [cached]
Carlos Eduardo Kruger da Silva,Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes,Magnos Fernando Ziech,Fernando Kuss
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oversown of different oat cultivars in grazing African star (Cynodon nlemfuensis vr. Nlemfuensis) managed with different forage residuals. The oat cultivars used were black oat (Avena strigosa), common oat (Avena sativa), oat IAPAR-61 (Avena strigosa IAPAR cv-61), oat IAPAR-126 (Avena sativa IAPAR cv-126). The research was conducted at Federal Technological University of Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, between 05/15//2009 and 10/26/2009. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (four oat cultivars and three residues African star). We evaluated forage mass, percentage of the structural components of the forage, total production, total production of oats and stem production stargrass and forage quality. There was no interaction between cultivar and the forage for the variables studied. The oversown with oat cv. IAPAR-126 showed higher total forage production (oat + African star) (4427.1 versus 2384.0 kg DM / ha) and oats (2453.0 versus 1588.7 kg DM / ha) compared to the common oat. The black oat showed higher percentage of stem (13.6%) compared to oat cv. IAPAR-126 (5.4%). The common oat showed higher ADF content in the residue (African star + oats) compared to oat IAPAR-126 (41.9 versus 36.3%). Already the common oat showed lower NDF (49.0%) compared to oats white IAPAR 126 (54.9%) and black oat (57.0%). The common oat showed a higher content of crude protein (15.6%) compared to others cultivars. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a sobressemeadura de diferentes cultivares de aveia em pastagem de estrela-africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis vr. Nlemfuensis) manejada com diferentes resíduos de forragem. Os cultivares de aveia utilizados foram aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa), aveia branca comum (Avena sativa), aveia preta cultivar IAPAR-61 (Avena strigosa cv IAPAR-61), aveia branca cultivar IAPAR-126 (Avena sativa cv IAPAR-126). A pesquisa foi realizada na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, no período de 15/05/2009 e 26/10/2009. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o bloco ao acaso, em um esquema fatorial 4 x 3 (quatro cultivares de aveia e três resíduos de estrela africana). Foram avaliados: massa de forragem, porcentagem dos componentes estruturais da forragem, produ o total, produ o total de aveia e colmo, produ o de estrela africana e qualidade das forragens. N o houve intera o entre cultivar e resíduo de forragem para nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. A pastagem sobressemeada com a aveia branca cv. IAPAR-126 apresentou maior produ o
Dynamics of yield and nutritional value for winter forage intercropping
Paris, Wagner;Marchesan, Renato;Cecato, Ulysses;Martin, Thomas Newton;Ziech, Magnos Fernando;Borges, Gisele Daiane Silveira;
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.11507
Abstract: the work was carried out to assess mass production and nutritional content of winter forages using lopsided oat (avena strigosa) and white oat (avena sativa) intercropped with ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) and vetch (vicia sativa l.). the species were intercropped as the following treatments: lopsided oat with ryegrass (lo+rg); white oat with ryegrass (co+rg); lopsided oat with vetch (lo+v); white oat with vetch (co+v); lopsided oat, vetch and ryegrass (lo+rg+v); and white oat, ryegrass and vetch (co+rg+v). the study evaluated total forage mass production of each intercropping and crude protein levels, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro digestibility coefficient of dry matter. the results indicate that forage yield of oats was higher in early assessments, and ryegrass and vetch were higher in the final evaluation period. the crude protein levels and neutral detergent fiber were higher at the start of the experiment for all evaluated treatments, and those including vetch intercropped with oats showed an increase in these parameters in the final period due to the presence of vetch, which has a more delayed cycle.
Response of Oat (Avena sativa) to Inoculation with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) in the Presence of Phosphorus  [PDF]
Irshad Ahmad Khan,Shahbaz Ahmad,Najma Ayub
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted with sterilized soil to study the effect of P2O5 and mycorrhizal fungus on growth of Avena sativa. Single inoculation with Gigaspora rosea had no significant effect on plant growth over the corresponding controls while with dual inoculation the increase was significantly higher, both in the presence or absence of phosphorus. The maximum shoot dry weight with dual inoculation (Glomus etunicatum + Glomus intraradices) was 38.45 g at 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 45.22 g at 25 kg P2O ha-1, while root dry weight was 19.13 g at 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 22.50 g at 25 kg P2O5 ha-1.
Effects of seeding rates on forage yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa l.) vetch (Vicia sativa l.) mixtures under irrigated conditions of Madagascar
V.B Rahetlah, J.M Randrianaivoarivony, L.H Razafimpamoa, V.L Ramalanjaona
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: Forage availability and quality during the dry and cool season is a major constraint to dairy development in the Highlands of Madagascar. The objective of the present study was to determine optimal seeding of oat and common vetch mixtures for increased production and quality of forage. The study was conducted under irrigated conditions in two agro-ecological zones of the Vakinankaratra region in the Highlands of Madagascar. Seed proportions studied were oat-vetch 100:0; 0:100; 50:50 and 50:75. Pure stands of oat and vetch were seeded at the rate of 100 and 60kg ha-1, respectively. Standard fertilization for forage oat production was uniformly applied on each plot. Pure stands and mixtures were given two successive cuts at flag leaf stage of oat. For both sites and their average, dry matter (DM), feed unit for lactation (UFL), crude protein (CP), and protein digested in the small intestine (PDI) yields were not significantly (p>0.05) different among mixtures and pure stands. The highest yields were obtained from the 50:50 mixture at the first site and from the 50:75 mixture at the second site. According to the two sites’ results’ average, the highest DM (7.71 t ha-1), UFL (6.08x103 units ha-1), CP (1.64 t ha-1) and PDI (597.1kg ha-1) yields were obtained from 50:50 mixture. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in forage quality characteristics except for CP and protein digested in the small intestine when rumen-fermentable nitrogen is limiting (PDIN). Mean CP concentration varied from 15.20% for pure stand of oat to 27.01% for pure stand of vetch. The highest value (178.8 g/kg DM) and the lowest value (103.5g/kg DM) in PDIN content were obtained from pure stand of oat and pure stand of vetch, respectively. Mixtures had 4.6 to 6.3% more CP content and 15.6 to 39.1% more PDIN content than pure stand of oat. Combined land equivalent ratio values exceeded unity in both mixtures which showed an advantage of intercropping over sole system in terms of the use of environmental resources. As intercropping of oat with vetch at 50:50 (50:30 kg ha-1) mixture achieved maximum yield advantage and forage quality, it could be used as alternative practice of oat sole cropping for high forage and protein production in the Vakinankaratra region.
Beratto M.,Edmundo; Rivas P.,Rudy;
Agricultura Técnica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072003000200011
Abstract: areco inia is a new alternative oat (avena sativa l.) cultivar for forage production in argentina. it was obtained from a cross between the advanced lines ave 85.103 and ave 78.106 carried out in 1987 at the carillanca regional research center, of the national agricultural research institute, located near temuco, chile. in chile, areco inia has been included in yield trials since 1995. in argentina, it has been evaluated mainly for forage production in 1998 and 1999 in lujan, and for disease reactions in lujan and chacabuco (buenos aires province) and maciel (santa fe province), by trigen seed services llc (tgss). areco inia has good resistance to the most common oat diseases in argentina, and it is comparable or superior to other oat cultivars in that country.
Beratto M.,Edmundo; Rivas P.,Rudy;
Agricultura Técnica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072003000200012
Abstract: coral-inia is an alternative oat (avena sativa l.) cultivar for forage production in argentina. it was obtained from a segregant f3 population from the quaker oat 1991 nursery, corresponding to entry 184, identified as qr 856 with origin 90wi3125-28. in chile, coral inia has been included in yield trials from 1995 to 1997 at the carillanca research center, of the national agricultural research institute (inia), located near temuco, chile. in argentina it has been evaluated for forage production from 1998 to 1999 in lujan (buenos aires province), and for disease reactions in lujan and chacabuco (buenos aires province) and maciel (santa fe province), by trigen seed services llc (tgss). coral inia has shown good resistance to lodging and the main oat diseases in argentina.
Effects of mowing utilization on forage yield and quality in five oat varieties in alpine area of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
W Gao-Lin, W Mei-Ru, G Ting, H Tian-Ming, G Davidson
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Oat (Avena sativa) is grown to provide feed in winter for livestock production in the alpine area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The effect of early cutting (T1), late cutting (T2) as well as once cutting and twice cutting (T3) on forage yields and qualities were investigated for five oat varieties (YTA, CNC, B3, Q473 and Q444). The cutting frequency and time significantly affected forage yield and quality of five varieties with the effects being different among the five varieties. T3 increased hay yield and crude protein yield than T2. The dry hay yield and crude protein yield of T2 were all significantly lower when compared to T1. YTA presented the maximum fresh grass yields, total hay yields and total crude protein yields under all cutting treatments among five varieties. T3 also improved feed quality on S/L ratio, F/D ratio, CP, CF and CA compared to T2 treatment. The results showed that utilization of two cuttings of oat artificial grasslands can be used to supply forage for livestock in alpine area. YTA is a good oat introduced variety which has higher hay yield and feeding quality even with two cuttings in alpine area.
Evaluation of Genotype Diversity in Oat Germplasm and Definition of Ideotypes Adapted to the Mediterranean Environment  [PDF]
Anna Iannucci,Pasquale Codianni,Luigi Cattivelli
International Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/870925
Abstract: Oat (Avena sativa L.) is a cereal species widely used for human food and livestock feed. It is rich in primary metabolites (e.g., protein, carbohydrate, and fibre) as well as in many secondary compounds (e.g., fructo-oligosaccharides). A germplasm evaluation was carried out to determine the genetic diversity, using univariate and multivariate analyses, and to define an oat ideotype for grain and fodder production adapted to the Mediterranean environment. A total of 109 genotypes were studied under field conditions in Foggia (southern Italy) over two growing seasons (2008-2009 and 2009-2010). All of the accessions were characterised according to 13 bioagronomic traits. Accessions were very different for these evaluated traits, with wide variabilities found particularly for seed yield and fructo-oligosaccharide concentration (CV = 37%). Principal component analysis showed that the first six axes accounted for 81% of the variability. Productivity characteristics and heading time were the major sources of diversity among these oat populations. Clustering entries identified nine groups based on their morphological and agronomic properties. The relationships found among traits can help to determine which groups of genotypes are better adapted to specific environmental conditions and to identify ideotypes for developing varieties for different purposes such as for food or forage. 1. Introduction Oat (Avena sativa L.) is used throughout the world for human food and animal feed, and it is frequently grown as a dual-purpose crop (grain harvest after grazing or forage cutting) [1]. As a pure stand, or also associated with the most common annual legumes, oat is one of the major forages grown and a main component of crop rotation in Mediterranean farming systems [2]. In recent years, its agronomic and nutritive values, as well as the increase in the popularity of organic agriculture due to its ability as a winter cover crop in no-till rotations, have led to renewed interest in this crop. Furthermore, the demand for oat for human consumption has increased, particularly because of the demonstrated dietary benefits of oat whole-grain products [3]. Oat is considered to be a nutritious source of protein, carbohydrate, fibre, vitamins, and minerals as well as of compounds with beneficial effects on health (e.g., polymers of fructose, and antioxidant molecules) [4]. In particular, oat grain has a high concentration of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), soluble nonstructural carbohydrates made of short chains of fructose molecules [5]. FOS have been termed “prebiotics”, because
New DArT markers for oat provide enhanced map coverage and global germplasm characterization
Nicholas A Tinker, Andrzej Kilian, Charlene P Wight, Katarzyna Heller-Uszynska, Peter Wenzl, Howard W Rines, ?smund Bj?rnstad, Catherine J Howarth, Jean-Luc Jannink, Joseph M Anderson, Brian G Rossnagel, Deon D Stuthman, Mark E Sorrells, Eric W Jackson, Stine Tuvesson, Frederic L Kolb, Olof Olsson, Luiz Federizzi, Marty L Carson, Herbert W Ohm, Stephen J Molnar, Graham J Scoles, Peter E Eckstein, J Michael Bonman, Alf Ceplitis, Tim Langdon
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-39
Abstract: Approximately 19,000 genomic clones were isolated from complexity-reduced genomic representations of pooled DNA samples from 60 oat varieties of global origin. These were screened on three discovery arrays, with more than 2000 polymorphic markers being identified for use in this study, and approximately 2700 potentially polymorphic markers being identified for use in future studies. DNA sequence was obtained for 2573 clones and assembled into a non-redundant set of 1770 contigs and singletons. Of these, 705 showed highly significant (Expectation < 10E-10) BLAST similarity to gene sequences in public databases. Based on marker scores in 80 recombinant inbred lines, 1010 new DArT markers were used to saturate and improve the 'Kanota' × 'Ogle' genetic map. DArT markers provided map coverage approximately equivalent to existing markers. After binning markers from similar clones, as well as those with 99% scoring similarity, a set of 1295 non-redundant markers was used to analyze genetic diversity in 182 accessions of cultivated oat of worldwide origin. Results of this analysis confirmed that major clusters of oat diversity are related to spring vs. winter type, and to the presence of major breeding programs within geographical regions. Secondary clusters revealed groups that were often related to known pedigree structure.These markers will provide a solid basis for future efforts in genomic discovery, comparative mapping, and the generation of an oat consensus map. They will also provide new opportunities for directed breeding of superior oat varieties, and guidance in the maintenance of oat genetic diversity.Oat is a cereal crop of global importance used for food, feed, and forage. It is adapted to cool climates and is cultivated predominantly in temperate regions or in winter seasons. Most cultivated varieties of oat belong to Avena sativa L., an allohexaploid species with 2n = 6× = 42. Other species in the genus Avena have ploidy levels ranging from diploid to hexapl
Turquesa, nueva variedad de avena para la producción de grano y forraje en México
Villase?or Mir, Héctor Eduardo;Espitia Rangel, Eduardo;Huerta Espino, Julio;Osorio Alcalá, Leodegario;López Hernández, Jesús;
Agricultura técnica en México , 2009,
Abstract: in 2007 the area sown to oat (avena sativa l.) in mexico was superior to 800 000 ha. the new cv. turquesa is of spring habit and was developed at valle de mexico experimental station from a simple cross between the experimental line f2 cv-83(5-0c) 8c-0c / karma. turquesa and eight check cultivars were grown from 2002 to 2008 under rainfall conditions in 132 yield trials; the average seed yield of turquesa was 3 043 kg ha-1, superior to all checks from 13.2% in cv. karma to 57.6% in cv. opalo. the forage production of turquesa, average from ten locations was superior to 11.0 ha-1, significantly superiorto all commercial checks.
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