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Stochastic Switching Games and Duopolistic Competition in Emissions Markets  [PDF]
Michael Ludkovski
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We study optimal behavior of energy producers under a CO_2 emission abatement program. We focus on a two-player discrete-time model where each producer is sequentially optimizing her emission and production schedules. The game-theoretic aspect is captured through a reduced-form price-impact model for the CO_2 allowance price. Such duopolistic competition results in a new type of a non-zero-sum stochastic switching game on finite horizon. Existence of game Nash equilibria is established through generalization to randomized switching strategies. No uniqueness is possible and we therefore consider a variety of correlated equilibrium mechanisms. We prove existence of correlated equilibrium points in switching games and give a recursive description of equilibrium game values. A simulation-based algorithm to solve for the game values is constructed and a numerical example is presented.
Study of Informative Advertising Competition Model in Duopolistic Market with Relative Profit Object  [PDF]
Jiao Lu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2017.102009
To study how the relative profit object influences duopolistic retailers’ advertising decisions, this paper adds the relative profit object on the Hotelling Model to study its influence on advertising decisions. Through the calculation and analysis of the advertising competition model, we found that the balanced advertising level and product price is positively related to product differentiation level. The relationship between balanced profit and product differentiation level is related to the range of each variable. The balanced product price is positively related to advertising cost, while the balanced advertising level and profit is negatively related to advertising cost. The balanced product price, advertising level and profit are negatively related to relative profit ratio. Commonly, the higher the relative object ratio, the advertising level should be higher. This paper gets the opposite conclusion. Through analysis and discussion, we found that this is mainly influenced by the advertising cost level. As in this paper the advertising cost level is restricted to be high, enterprises will choose to raise price for more profit and lower advertising level to reduce cost while the relative profit ratio increases.
The association between technology type and diffusion pattern under duopolistic competition
Tsou Ching-Shih,Chung Kun-Jen,Hsu Chin-Hsiung
Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/yjor0701095t
Abstract: Many firms consider adopting new technologies as a means for enhancing competitive advantages. Therefore, the subject of technology diffusion has been studied by many researchers from different disciplines in order to explore the diffusion profiles throughout the industry or the country. The argument has frequently been made that the pattern of diffusion associated with most new technologies will typically have certain characteristics. In general, the diffusion pattern within an industry will depend on the competitive arena and technology characteristics. Based on a duopolistic game-theoretic model, this paper tries to explore the association between technology type and diffusion pattern. The results show that the cost-reducing technologies are adopted sequentially within a duopoly. On the other hard, strategic technologies diffuse over time or in a swarm. Although both technologies might be adopted sequentially, the rate for strategic technologies is faster than that for cost-reducing technologies. .
On the Competition among Three Modes of Innovation: Incubative Innovation, Acquisitive Innovation and Shanzhai  [PDF]
Yinxin Lu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.82026
Abstract: In this article, we investigate how Shanzhai phenomenon affects the competition among firms adopted different innovation mode, namely incubative innovation, acquisitive innovation and Shanzhai. Using the framework of vertical product differentiation model, we first analyze the duopoly game between incubative innovation and acquisitive innovation, then introduce Shanzhai innovation to the model, and compare the equilibrium result between the two games. We show that the rise of Shanzhai innovation has the opposite effect on the innovation incentive of incubative innovator and acquisitive innovator. The rise of Shanzhai innovation also decreases the prices and profits of incubative innovator and acquisitive innovator, decreases producer surplus and social welfare, while increases consumer surplus. Moreover, if the efficiency parameter of Shanzhai innovation is sufficiently small, firms adopted Shanzhai innovation might earn higher profits than the ones adopted acquisitive innovation and incubative innovation.
Competition Policy and Innovation in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence  [cached]
George R.G. Clarke
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v3n3p38
Abstract: Firms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia that feel their competitors pressure them to innovate are more likely to innovate than firms do not. But price competition also reduces rents—and therefore the resources that firms have to invest. This paper assesses how competition policy affects these two different aspects of competition and how each affect innovation. It finds that enforcing competition law and cutting tariffs increases pressure to innovate and price competition. Because these affect innovation in opposite directions, it is not clear what competition policy’s net impact will be. The empirical results in this paper suggest that stricter competition laws increase the likelihood that firms will introduce new products but decrease the likelihood that they will introduce new production processes. In contrast, lower tariffs modestly reduce new product and new process development.
Innovation, loyalty and generic competition in pharmaceutical markets
Fernando Anto anzas,Carmelo Juárez-Castelló,Roberto Rodríguez-Ibeas
SERIEs , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13209-010-0032-5
Abstract: We analyze how a manufacturer with a brand-name drug close to patent expiration decides to launch a product-line extension (an upgrade through innovation) before it faces generic competition. There are two types of physicians: loyal physicians always prescribe first the product-line extension and then either the off-patent drug or a generic drug while the non-loyal ones prescribe taking into account the prices of the drugs. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, the incumbent firm decides the level of innovation. In the second-stage, all firms decide sequentially their prices, with the incumbent firm acting as a Stackelberg leader. We find two equilibria in the pricing-decision game. For relatively large levels of innovation, the incumbent firm competes for the price-sensitive physicians. However, for low levels of innovation, the incumbent firm prefers to exploit the loyal physicians and to charge the monopoly price. The equilibrium level of innovation exhibits an inverted U-shaped behaviour with respect to the degree of loyalty.
Innovation, Competition and Growth: Evolving Complexiting or Complex Evolution
J. Stanley Metcalfe,Maria da Gra?a Derengowski Fonseca,Ronald Ramlogan
Revista Brasileira de Inova??o , 2002,
Abstract: This paper reports on the initial investigation into an evolutionary adaptive account of economic growth, innovation and competition. It starts from the premise that the economy is a system comprising multiplicity of agents, diverse in abilities and capabilities, interacting, adapting, reacting and constantly modifying the patterns on structures that they help to create.Two themes in special are explored in this context. The first it is enterprise as the primum mobile of modern capitalist economies. The second relates to the importance of the economic growth as an emergent phenomenon. The transformation processes involved can be broken down into three elements: micro-diversity, selection processes and development processes. It is the manner of interdependence between these three elements that defines the relation between innovation, growth and competition.We explore these issues in a model of growth whose forms differ in three dimensions: efficiency, investment behavior and processes of cost reducing innovation. The dynamics of Fisher′s principles are explored in this context. The main result of this paper can be summarized as being a critical assessment of the knowledge foundations of endogenous growth theory, a clear statement of the core elements in an evolutionary adaptive theory of growth and the analysis of economic growth through the use of replier dynamic processes.
From Competition to Cooperation - Development and Practices of Open Innovation Systems  [cached]
Hsiu-ling Li
International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.5875/ausmt.v2i2.152
Abstract: In this era of an innovation-driven knowledge economy, innovation is a key factor in the creation of enterprise competitiveness. With the pace of globalization gaining speed and market competition becoming more intense, an increasing number of enterprises have opted to look beyond their own laboratories and search for creativity in the outside world. In other words, the source of momentum for enterprise innovation is no longer limited to a corporation's internal organization but can be derived from the proper use of external knowledge and innovative resources. When combining internal and external creativity to foster the development of new technologies, we can create greater economic value. The rise of this form of open innovation thinking is driving the development of the innovation systems in specific countries or regions.
Software propietario vs software libre: una evaluación de sistemas integrales para la automatización de bibliotecas Free software vs proprietary software: an assessment of integrated systems for library automation  [cached]
Oscar Arriola Navarrete,Graciela Tecuatl Quechol,Guadalupe González Herrera
Investigación bibliotecológica , 2011,
Abstract: En este documento se realiza una evaluación de dos Sistemas Integrales de Automatización de Bibliotecas (SIAB) con el fin de identificar ventajas y desventajas de los sistemas propietarios y los sistemas libres (SPX vs. Koha). Con el objetivo de proporcionar información al bibliotecario para que conozca mayores alternativas que le permitan elegir el SIAB que más convenga. De manera específica se evaluarán los sistemas SPX y KOHA, describiendo los requerimientos y servicios que ofrece cada uno de ellos; y poder dar elementos para la toma de decisión en el momento de adquirir un sistema. This paper assesses two Integrated Library Systems (ILS) to identify advantages and disadvantages of proprietary and free software (SPX vs. Koha). With the aim of providing information to the librarian to expand alternatives to choose the comprehensive of ILS is most appropriate. Specifically be evaluated SPX and KOHA systems, describing the requirements and services offered by each one of them, and to give elements for decision making when purchasing a system.
James D. Smith
Essays in Economic & Business History , 2001,
Abstract: This presentation describes a three-stage historical model developed as apart of a Ph.D. dissertation analyzing competition between U.S. and Japanese companies in electronics-related industries. The model is similar to that described by Piore and Sabel in The Second Industrial Divide, but companies under the third stage do not succeed by reacting quickly to exogenous technological change but by repeatedly leap frogging their competitors through product and process innovation. This shifts the focus from the mechanical production process to the collaborative innovation process, which requires social systems to support collective learning.
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