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MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS  [PDF]
Violeta Trandafir,Daniela Trandafir,Eugenia Popescu
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2010,
Abstract: Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.
MALIGNANT LUNG TUMORS
RAO SAAD ALI KHAN
The Professional Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To determine sensitivity and specificity of bronchial wash cytology in diagnosis of malignant lung tumors, with histopathology as gold standard. Design: Validation study of bronchial wash cytology as a screening procedure. Setting: Pulmonology unit,Department of Medicine, Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration: Six months (from Nov 2004 to May 2005) Patients and methods: Hundred indoor patients of either gender with clinical suspicion of lung tumors were included in this study by convenience non probability sampling. Transbronchial biopsies of the lesions were done and samples of tissues were collected for histopathological examination. Ten ml of reaspirated isotonic saline was sent for bronchial wash cytology examination. Results: Out of 100 patients histopathological examination confirmed malignancy in 75 (75%), whereas cytology could detect malignancy in 58 (58%). Thus bronchial wash cytology had a sensitivity of 77.33% and a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Pulmonary wash cytology has good sensitivity and specificity but yields less information as compared to biopsy. It is particularly useful in patients where the latter is contraindicated or the required expertise is not available.
Surgery for malignant liver tumors  [cached]
Shukla Parul,Barreto Savio
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2009,
Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed an increase in liver resections. There is a need for an update on factors related to the management of liver tumors in view of newer published data. A systematic search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1983-2008 was performed. The IHPBA classification provides a suitable nomenclature of liver resections. While one randomized trial has provided an objective time of 30 min as optimal for intermittent pedicle occlusion, another randomized study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing liver resections without pedicle clamping. A randomized trial has demonstrated the benefit of clamp crushing over newer techniques of liver transection. Cohort studies support anatomical resections when feasible in terms of outcomes. Nonrandomized studies also support nonanatomical and ablative therapies in patients with cirrhosis and small remnant livers. A randomized trial has shown comparable long-term outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and surgery for tumors < 5 cm. No randomized trials comparing laparoscopy and open surgery exist. Surgery remains an important treatment modality for malignant hepatic neoplasms. While anatomical resections provide improved survival, the choice of nonanatomical versus anatomical resections should be individualized taking into account factors such as cirrhosis and function of the liver remnant. A clear margin of resection is essential in all surgically resected cases. RFA is emerging as a useful, often complimentary tool, to surgery when dealing with complex tumors or tumors in patients with a poor liver function. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is useful in staging and performance of RFA.
Malignant Tumors of Heart: A Review  [PDF]
Akshay Chauhan, Anurag Agarwal, S. E. H. Naqvi, M. A. Geelani
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2018.811020
Abstract: Malignant cardiac tumors are rare and challenging entity. Experience in treating these aggressive and lethal tumors is minimal and management protocols are not well defined and have to rely on case reports, and personal experiences. Most effective therapy for primary cardiac malignancy is a complete surgical resection and the role of chemoradiotherapy is still evolving.
Malignant tumors of auricula and periauricular area  [PDF]
Bojanovi? Mila,?ivkovi?-Marinkov Emilija,Veselinovi? Dragan,Bojanovi? Aleksandar
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0908611b
Abstract: Background/Aim. Malignant tumors of auricula and periauricular area represent seven percent of all cutaneous tumors. They appear mostly in the sixth and seventh decade. According to histological type they are basocellular and planocellular carcinomas. The most frequent etiology is the sun exposition. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and histological characteristics and therapy of malignant tumors of auricular and periauricular area. Methods. Totally 155 patients were treated in ORL Clinic, Clinical Center Ni during the period 1990-2006. The patients were treated surgically (59.35%), by radiotherapy (1.94%) and by combination of the two methods (38.71%). Results. Since the majority of tumors were small and presented on the helix, wedge excision and primary reconstruction were performed (136), while total (9) or partial (10) auriculectomy were done in a small number of the patients. For larger lesions (T4 - when lesion is greater than 4.0 cm) and neck metastasis invading cartilage or bone, parotidectomy (15), radical neck dissection (25) and temporal bone resection (9) were performed. Conclusion. Carcinoma of auricular and periauricular area should be confirmed by biopsy and histopathologic evaluation. In all cases an adequate excision, margin examination and observation of appropriate lymph node draining regions should be provided.
ACTUALLY TREATMENT OF THE HEPATIC MALIGNANT TUMORS  [PDF]
E. Tarcoveanu
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2005,
Abstract: The treatment of the hepatic malignant tumors is a challenge for every surgeon. In present days there are a lot of techniques with different indications and results. These methods and their efficacity are presented in some recent papers. Hepatic resection is the gold standard treatment for hepatic malignancies with a decreasing postoperative morbidity and mortality. But only 10 - 20% of the patients with hepatic malignancies are able to be operated. For the other patients the treatment is palliative. Termonecrosis (by radiofrequency, steam water, laser, microwaves), intraarterial chemotherapy, chemoembolisation, cryoablation and ethanolic injection are alternative therapies which are indicated to use as palliative procedures in the treatment of the liver tumors.
Malignant small round cell tumors  [cached]
Rajwanshi Arvind,Srinivas Radhika,Upasana Gautam
Journal of Cytology , 2009,
Abstract: Malignant small round cell tumors are characterised by small, round, relatively undifferentiated cells. They generally include Ewing′s sarcoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and nephroblastoma or Wilms′ tumor. Other differential diagnoses of small round cell tumors include small cell osteogenic sarcoma, undifferentiated hepatoblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, and intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors is particularly difficult due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Tumors that show good differentiation are generally easy to diagnose, but when a tumor is poorly differentiated, identification of the diagnostic, morphological features is difficult and therefore, no definitive diagnosis may be possible. As seen in several study reports, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has become an important modality of diagnosis for these tumors. The technique yields adequate numbers of dissociated, viable cells, making it ideally suitable for ancillary techniques. Typically, a multimodal approach is employed and the principal ancillary techniques that have been found to be useful in classification are immunohistochemistry and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and electron microscopy. However, the recent characterization of chromosomal breakpoints and the corresponding genes involved in malignant small round cell tumors means that it is possible to use molecular genetic approaches for detection.
Therapeutic vaccines for malignant brain tumors  [cached]
Michael P Gustafson,Keith L Knutson,Allan B Dietz
Biologics: Targets and Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: Michael P Gustafson1, Keith L Knutson2, Allan B Dietz11Division of Transfusion Medicine; 2Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. Current therapy consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy. Despite these treatments, the prognosis for patients is poor. As such, investigative therapies including tumor vaccines have targeted this devastating condition. Recent clinical trials involving immunotherapy, specifically dendritic cell (DC) based vaccines, have shown promising results. Overall, these vaccines are well tolerated with few documented side effects. In many patients receiving vaccines, tumor progression was delayed and the median overall survival of these patients was prolonged. Despite these encouraging results, several factors have limited the efficacy of DC vaccines. Here we discuss the potential of DC vaccines as adjuvant therapy and current obstacles of generating highly pure and potent DC vaccines in the context of malignant glioma. Taken together, the results from earlier clinical studies justify additional clinical trials aimed at improving the efficacy of DC vaccines.Keywords: malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, vaccine, immunotherapy, dendritic cells
CURRENT APPROACH IN TREATMENT OF NASOPHARINGEAL MALIGNANT TUMORS
Miodrag Miti?,Zoran Dimi?,Mila Bojanovi?,Bo?idar Petrovi?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2003,
Abstract: A retrospective study was undertaken on ORL Clinic, Clinical Center Nis, from January 1996. to January 2001. to estimate frequency of nasopharingeal malignant tumors, among malignant tumors of ENT region, to emphasize the so called "lost time period", obstacles in obtaining an adequate clinical and hystopathological diagnosis and to apply adequate type of treatment.There were 327 malignant tumors of ENT region during the 5 years period, from witch 28 (8,5%) were nasopharyngeal. Most of patients were between 45 - 55 year. Both sexes were affected. Sex ratio was 28 : 8 (for males).The dominant symptoms were arual, nasal and enlargement of neck lymph nodes. A prevalent type of tumors was T2N2M0 according to international classification of nasopharingeal malignant tumors. All patients were treated by combined therapy, mostly by radio and chemotherapy.Patients with epypharyngeal malignant tumors had relatively bad prognosis. Survival rate for three years (period) was 43%.
Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Parotid Tumors by Triplex Sonography
"H. Sharifian,H. Mazaher,Sh. Sharif Kashani,Sh. Faridjamal "
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction & Background: To provide the criteria for the differentiation of benign and malignant tu-mors of parotid gland, we examined 50 patients with parotid tumors by triplex sonography (gray scale, color Doppler and pulse Doppler ultrasound). Among gray scale parameters, tumor margin, tumor echo tex-ture, and transmission were evaluated. Patients & Methods: Tumor vascularization displayed by color Doppler sonography (CDS) was graded on a four-point scale (from 0 indicating no vascularization to 3, which shows high vascularization). From the Doppler spectrum, the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the resistive index (RI) were evaluated. Results: Among the 50 patients assessed, 32 had be-nign and 18 had malignant parotid tumors. From 33 tumors with distinct margin, there were 29 benign and 4 malignant ones. From 17 tumors with indistinct margin, there were 14 malignant and 3 benign tu-mors. From 29 with through transmission, there were 26 benign and 3 malignant, and from 21 tumors without transmission, there 15 were malignant and 6 benign. Tumor vascularization based on CDS was grade 0 or 1 in 28 benign lesions, and 2 or 3 in 15 of malignant lesions (P<0.001). The PSV was signifi-cantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign le-sions, using a PSV threshold of 27.5cm/s; sensitivity and specificity of the method for detection of malig-nant tumors were 83% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion: High vascularization and high PSV should raise the suspicion of malignancy, even if tu-mor morphology on gray scale sonography indicates a benign one.
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