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Malaria in Addis Ababa and its environs: assessment of magnitude and distribution
Adugna Woyessa, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Ahmed Ali, Daniel Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. Frequent epidemics and its appearance in highland areas previously known to be beyond malaria transmission upper limit are becoming common in the country. Objectives: The objective of the study was to review and document the situation of malaria in Addis Ababa. Methods: Records on cases of malaria seen at outpatient departments of 20 health centers in the six administrative zones of Addis Ababa were reviewed. An epidemic report compiled relatively recently was as well used as a source of additional information. Results: Rise in the number of malaria cases treated at outpatient departments in Addis Ababa was noted from 1996 on wards. In one of the administrative Zones of Addis Ababa, Akaki and its surroundings, an outbreak of malaria was reported during 1998/9. More than three times increment of primary clinical cases of malaria was recorded during the peak of this epidemic. Conclusion: It is believed that malaria is one of the causes of morbidity congesting health services in Addis Ababa City Administration. The epidemic at the peripheral part of the City, Akaki and its environs in 1998/9 is believed to be associated with the climate change during this period. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2002;16(2):147-155]
Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amsale Cherie, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23021
Abstract: Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6%) of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
The Law and Practice of Administrative Courts in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal  [PDF]
Abate Ayana
International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance , 2011,
Abstract: Addis Ababa city administration established an administrative tribunal based on proclamation No. 6/2008. Thus, the city administrative tribunal would revise administrative measures taken by the concerned city offices. In other words, it hears and decides on appeals which are brought to it by the civil servants. The study which adopted the survey research design mainly through personal interview with court administrators revealed that the city administrative tribunal has performed its function in proper manner and base on the laws. Besides, it is observed that in rendering decision the tribunal carefully followed the laid down procedures. Speedy trial was also one quality of the administrative tribunal. It was therefore concluded that the administrative tribunal operated in a legal and procedural sound manner. Nevertheless, for enhanced productivity, professional trainings for the staff of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal in particular and Administrative Courts in Ethiopia in general should be taken seriously.
Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS Diagnostic Disclosure to HIV Infected Children Receiving HAART: A Multi-Center Study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Sibhatu Biadgilign,Amare Deribew,Alemayehu Amberbir,Horacio Ruise?or Escudero,Kebede Deribe
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017572
Abstract: Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion care in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia
Hailu Yeneneh, Tenaw Andualem, Hailemichael Gebreselassie, Mulu Muleta
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Unsafe abortion is a major contributor of maternal mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. High disease burden and underdeveloped infrastructure entail involvement of all partners in responding to health needs in the country. The private sector has apparently not been exploited to the fullest extent so far. Objective: To assess the potential of private facilities in expanding access to postabortion care (PAC). Methods: A cross-sectional study of private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia was conducted in 2001-2, using a pretested questionnaire and a checklist. Results: We assessed 88, 31 and 32 facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia, respectively. Treatment was provided by 44%, 52% and 63% of the eligible facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia, respectively. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used in treating 61% of Addis Ababa patients whereas sharp curettage was used in over 80% of those in Amhara and Oromia. About 80% of women did not get postabortion family planning methods. Patient-provider interaction was generally satisfactory. High-level disinfection (HLD) of non-autoclavable instruments needed improvement. All medium and above clinics have at least one GP and many have nurse/midwives. The vast majority of facilities not giving the service would like to provide comprehensive PAC if staff are trained and equipment made available in the market. Conclusion: Private health facilities can contribute substantially if given the necessary guidance and support with proper monitoring and evaluation. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):157-165
Investigation of Traffic air Pollution in Addis Ababa City around Selected Bus Stations Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique  [PDF]
Awoke Taddesse Hailu,A.K. Chaubey,Asres Yehunie Hibstie
International Journal of Basics and Applied Science , 2013,
Abstract: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high resolutiongamma-ray spectrometry was used to monitor traffic air pollution in Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia) around selected bus stations. Biomonitoring technique was applied for the research. The low neutron flux from our isotope source is compensated by taking relatively long irradiation time and large mass samples. Gamma photon mass absorption correction was made for the relative large mass sample. It was identified that more than 18 air pollutant elements are accumulated in the biomonitor samples. The research reveals that the studied area were highly polluted due to mainly traffic air pollution.
Fertility awareness and post-abortion pregnancy intention in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yilma Melkamu, Fikre Enquselassie, Ahmed Ali, Hailemichael Gebresilassie, Lukman Yusuf
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Abortion related complications are known to be among the leading causes of maternal mortality and disabilities in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of post-abortion patients, regarding return of fertility and pregnancy intentions. Methods: Cross sectional study was undertaken in four government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from November 2001 to February 2002. Four hundred post-abortion cases were interviewed at the point of their discharge to get information on their fertility awareness and future pregnancy intentions. Results: Seventeen percent of the respondents who reported that the pregnancies were unwanted admitted some kind of interference with the pregnancy. Thirty six percent reported that they were assisted at clinics for inducing the abortion. Overall about 82% of them reported not having a plan to become pregnant in three months period following the abortion. Seventy three percent of them were not able to tell the time at which they could become pregnant if involved in sexual intercourse after the present abortion. Conclusion: This study revealed the urgent demand for quality services that should include education and provision of family planning counseling and methods. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):167-174
Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic
Fikru Tesfaye, Peter Byass, Stig Wall
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-9-39
Abstract: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25–64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements.A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index ≥ 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index ≥ 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females.High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent epidemic in this population. Overweight, obesity and physical inactivity are important determinants of high blood pressure. There is an urgent need for strategies and programmes to prevent and control high blood pressure, and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours primarily among the urban populations of Ethiopia.Hypertension is an import
E-Learning in Engineering through Videoconferencing: The Case of the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology  [cached]
Bedilu Habte
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy , 2013, DOI: 10.3991/ijep.v3i2.2385
Abstract: In addition to their ability to reach distant learners, interactive e-learning environments have the potential to make the teaching-learning process more effective. This paper highlights some of the e-learning implementation efforts at the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT) in Ethiopia. This case study shows that limited resources do not deter a developing nation to exploit the power of e-learning. Based on feedback from participants in the first national videoconferencing program held in Ethiopian higher education system between October 2011 and June 2012, the paper addresses the lessons learned and recommended actions for moving forward to a successful implementation of e-learning in Ethiopia, particularly in a videoconferencing mode.
Mass concentrations and elemental composition of urban atmospheric aerosols in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
G. Gebre, Z. Feleke, E. Sahle-Demissie
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: Aerosol samples were collected from 22 February 2008 to 15 April 2008 and 17 June 2008 to 23 July 2008 in urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the aim to assess the spatial and temporal aspects of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and their composition in terms of metallic elements. Sixty six filter samples were collected from seven distinct sites using I.O.M. multi fraction dust samplers and fiber glass filter papers. The mass of each particulate matter sample was measured gravimetrically and the composition of PM10 samples was analyzed using ICP-OAES and SEM-EDAX. The concentration of TSP was in the range of 17-556 μg/m3 and that of PM10 was in the range of 17-285 μg/m3. The highest TSP and PM10 peak values were observed in February 2008 at two sites, whereas the lowest TSP and PM10 values were observed in June and July 2008 at two sites. The mean TSP concentration surpassed the WHO safe guideline value of 150 μg/m3 and 79 % of the PM10 values were below the WHO guideline value. The PM10 to TSP mass ratio was in the range 0.26-0.59 and PM10 mass contributed about 39% to the TSP mass. The average element concentration in PM10 filter sample was in the order of Ca > Na > K > Zn > Sb > B > Al > V > Mg > S > Fe. All the analyzed elements contributed about 0.1% to the PM10 mass. SEM-EDAX analysis of PM10 samples showed that Si, Al, Na, Zn, Ba, K and C were the predominant species. Crustal materials contributed 76-95% of the filter mass, and C and Cu represented 5-24%. The size distribution of aerosol particles as derived from SEM analysis was in 0.43-9.3 μm range. KEY WORDS: TSP, PM10, Metal analysis, Atmospheric aerosol, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010, 24(3), 361-373.
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