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Trends in contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana
L Abdul-Rahman, G Marrone, A Johansson
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2011,
Abstract: Within the past one and half decades many efforts have been made to improve the availability and access to adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old). The results show that between 2003 and 2008 there was a significant increase in the current use of any contraceptive method (from 23.7% to 35.1%, p=0.03). It also indicates a shift from modern to traditional contraceptive methods. Traditional methods recorded about 60% (7.8 percentage points) increase as compared to 5.5% (2.6 percentage points) for modern methods. Also ever use of any traditional method recorded a higher increase as compared to any modern method. There was a slight decline 7% (4.4 parentage points) in the number of non-users who intended to use contraceptives in the future. On the whole the findings indicate increasing unmet need for modern contraception due to barriers such as limited access, cost and misconceptions about the effects of contraceptives.
Intentions to use contraceptives in Pakistan: implications for behavior change campaigns
Sohail Agha
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-450
Abstract: In addition to social and demographic characteristics of respondents, a representative household survey collected information on psychological correlates of family planning behavior from 1,788 non-pregnant wives and 1,805 husbands with not-pregnant wives. Males and females were from separate households. Principal components analysis was conducted to identify the underlying constructs that were important for each gender. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the correlates of male and female intentions to use contraceptive methods.Amongst women, the perception that her in-laws support family planning use was the strongest determinant of her intentions to use contraceptive methods. A woman's belief in the importance of spacing children and her perception that a choice of methods and facilities with competent staff were available were also powerful drivers of her intentions to use contraceptive methods. The strongest obstacle to a woman's forming an intention to use contraceptive methods was her belief that family planning decisions were made by the husband and fertility was determined by God's will. Fears that family planning would harm a woman's womb lowered a woman's intentions to use methods requiring procedures, such as the IUD and female sterilization.The perception that a responsible, caring, husband uses family planning to improve the standard of living of his family and to protect his wife's health was the most important determinant of a man's intention to use condoms. A husband's lack of self-efficacy in being able to discuss family planning with his wife was the strongest driver of the intention to use withdrawal. A man's fear that contraceptives would make a woman sterile and harm her womb lowered his intention to use modern contraceptive methods.These findings highlight the importance of having secondary target audiences such as mothers-in-law and husbands in family planning behavior change campaigns implemented in Pakistan. C
A study of predictors of adolescents’ physical activity intentions  [PDF]
Lambros Lazuras,Despoina Ourda,Vassilis Barkoukis,Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
Psychology, Society & Education , 2011,
Abstract: The present study used an integrated theoretical framework based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Prototype/Willingness model to examine the social cognitive predictors of leisure time physical activity intentions among Greek secondary school students (N = 254, M age = 13.59 years, SD = 1.18). A cross-sectional survey method was employed to assess physical activity intentions and related psychosocial beliefs, as well as self-reported physical activity behaviour. Multiple regression analysis indicated that leisure time physical activity intentions were predicted by past behaviour, perceived behavioural control, and anticipated regret. Prototype similarity and favourability, and descriptive norms did not predict intentions. The findings are discussed in terms of the utility of the planned behaviour and prototype/willingness approaches to explain leisure time physical activity among young people.
Willingness to Pay for Improved Electricity Supply in Ghana  [PDF]
Daniel Kwabena Twerefou
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55046

One major problem facing Ghana is the unreliable supply of electricity. Unreliable electricity supply largely attributed to supply side constraints such as poor energy infrastructure, low tariffs which is below cost recovery and increasing demand has made it difficult to provide uninterrupted supply for the populace. Currently, there is a constant outcry by Ghanaians for the government and service providers to improve electricity service delivery due to the fact that households do suffer economic losses in the event of unannounced power outages to the point that many of them may be willing to pay higher tariffs if that will ensure improved service delivery. In this study we assess households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved electricity supply as well as the factors that influence WTP through a contingent valuation survey. Results from our analysis indicated that, households in Ghana are prepared to pay on the average about 0.2734 for a kilowatt-hour which is about one and a half times more than what they are paying currently. An econometric analysis of the factors that influence households’ WTP for improved electricity supply indicates that household income, sex, household size, secondary and tertiary level education are the significant factors.

Family Planning Needs of Adolescents in Predominantly Rural Communities in the Central Part of Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Obed Ernest Nettey, Emmanuel Mahama, Charlotte Tawiah, Ellen Boamah, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephanie Gyaase, Samuel Afari Asiedu, Alexander Manu, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.56030
Abstract: The manuscript presents findings of a descriptive analysis of data from a cross-sectional study of adolescents aimed at identifying their family planning needs and the best approaches to addressing them in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana. Data for the paper were from the family planning module of a sexual and reproductive health survey carried out by the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in 2011. Adolescents in this study recorded high marital (1.6% females and 0.4% males) and pregnancy rates (11.5% females and 1.5% males). Their knowledge of contraceptive methods was high (87.7% females and 82% males), but utilization was low (17.9% females and 6% males). Most study participants viewed family planning as important to their health and wellbeing (59.6% females and 58.6% males). A minority of adolescents were of the perception that contraceptive use was solely the responsibility of women (41.1% females and 32.4% males); and that the use of contraceptives could lead to promiscuity among women (43.8% females and 42.5% males). Those adolescents who previously had unwanted pregnancies would have accepted some help in preventing it (33.1% females and 9.1% males). Recommendations made by respondents included creating a friendly atmosphere by care providers for family planning services delivery to adolescents. Other suggestions were ensuring that family planning services are available and accessible to adolescents, and educating adolescents on the diverse methods available.
Potential for Cost Recovery: Women’s Willingness to Pay for Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Ndola Prata, Suzanne Bell, Karen Weidert, Amanuel Gessessew
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064032
Abstract: Objective To investigate factors associated with a woman’s willingness to pay (WTP) for injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods We used a multistage random sampling design to generate a representative sample of reproductive age women from the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia to participate in a survey (N = 1490). Respondents who had ever used injectable contraceptives or who were interested in using them were asked whether they would be willing to pay, and if so, how much. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values were used to assess which factors were associated with WTP in our final model. Findings On average, respondents were willing to pay 11 birr ($0.65 USD) per injection. Being married, completing any amount of education, having given birth, and having visited a health facility in the last 12 months (whether received family planning information or not) were associated with statistically significantly increased odds of WTP. Having initiated sexual activity and having 1–2 children (compared to 0 children) were associated with statistically significantly decreased odds of WTP. We also detected two significant interactions. Among women who prefer injectable contraceptives, their odds of WTP for injectable contraceptives vary across length of time they have used them. And among women who work for pay, their odds of WTP for injectable contraceptives vary by whether they agree with their husband/partner about the ideal number of children. Conclusion In a sector that continually struggles with funding, cost recovery for contraceptive services may offer a means of improved financial sustainability while increasing rural access to injectable contraceptives. Results indicate there are opportunities for cost recovery in rural Tigray, Ethiopia and highlight factors that could be leveraged to increase WTP for injectable contraceptives.
Assessing Willingness to pay for Information Delivery among Rural Women in Ghana
Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong Kwapong
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) , 2007,
Abstract: —This study used rural household survey datacollected from 1000 female household heads randomlyselected from all the ten administrative regions in Ghana toexamine rural women’s willingness to pay for informationdelivered via three technologies – community radio, privateradio, and extension agents. A contingent valuation methodwas used for the study.Household expenditures, household education, andmembership in community organizations emerged as theprincipal factors influencing rural women’s willingness topay for the various information technologies. This point tothe need to cast rural empowerment policies and programswithin the broader poverty reduction policies ofgovernment.
Making Family Planning Services Relevant to Adolescents: Perspectives from Rural Communities in Central Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Charlotte Tawiah, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Abubakari Sulemana, Emmanuel Mahama, George Adjei, Ellen Boamah, Alex Manu, Stephanie Gyaase, Charles Zandoh, Nelson Amanfo, Kwaku Poku Asante, Timothy Letsa, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411096
Abstract: In lower middle-income countries like Ghana, it is common to find low contraceptive use among adolescents with corresponding high pregnancy outcomes. Evidence points to the fact that the use of contraceptives prevents maternal, neonatal and infant deaths, but in most lower middle-income countries, socio-cultural practices inhibit adolescents’ use. Ensuring the uptake of family planning among adolescents is deemed a necessary means of reducing maternal, neonatal and infant mor-tality. This manuscript seeks to provide contextually relevant approaches to satisfying family planning needs of adolescents in a population lacking it. We employed a qualitative study design from an interpretive paradigm with phenomenology as the methodology to understand societal attitudes towards family planning delivery to adolescents, so as to arrive at contextually appro-priate ways of providing family planning to this needy group. Focused group discussions and in-depth interviews techniques were used in data collection among adolescents, relevant commu-nity opinion leaders and family planning & health services providers. Themes that emerged from data analysis with respect to “perspectives on family planning care delivery to adolescents” and “best ways in addressing adolescents’ family planning needs” are presented, followed by discussion of the issues emerging. A significant and encouraging finding of the study was that opinion leaders and healthcare providers viewed family planning as a means of protecting adolescents against pregnancies and their complications. A key recommendation is for policy makers and political leaders to enact legislations that enable adolescents to have friendly family planning service delivery in all places and at all times.
Estimating Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Irrigation: An Economic Study of the Bontanga Irrigation Scheme in Northern Ghana  [cached]
Mustapha Alhassan,John Loomis,Marshall Frasier,Stephen Davies
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v5n4p31
Abstract: This paper estimates the willingness of farmers under the Bontanga Irrigation Scheme (BIS) in Northern Ghana to pay for improved irrigation services. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used in this study and farmers were randomly selected for interviewing based on the location of their farms (upstream, middle, and downstream) within the scheme. The payment card elicitation format was used and the data were analyzed using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) procedure that is capable of accommodating the intervals in payment card data. The mean willingness to pay was found to be GHC 16.32 (US$ 8.50) per ha per year and the median was GHC 14.00 (US$ 7.29) per ha per year. The study identified location of farm, land ownership, and land lease prices as the significant and influencing factors that affect willingness to pay.
Willingness-to-Pay for Potable Water in the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana  [PDF]
Daniel Kwabena Twerefou, Kwadwo A. Tutu, Ebo Botchway, Samuel Darkwah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.612122
Abstract: A major problem confronting the Accra-Tema Metropolitan area of Ghana is the provision of potable water supply. One reason for this occurrence is the inability of Ghana Water Company Limited to meet the growing demand. This can partly be attributable to the ineffective pricing by the PURC which is below cost recovery levels. In this study we investigate household’s willingness-to-pay (WTP) for potable water supply together with the factors that determine WTP by using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). The results indicate that households in the Accra-Tema metropolis are willing to pay on the average GH¢0.10 for a bucket (17.5 litres) of water which is about 7 times more than what they are paying currently. Analysis of the factors that influence households WTP indicates that income, time spent to fetch water from existing sources, level of education, sanitation facility, perceived quality of current water supply, sex of the respondent and marital status are the main factors influencing households WTP for potable water supply services in the metropolis. We recommend that government improve water supply and increase tariffs since people are prepared to pay more for potable water supply as well as reduce inefficiencies that exist in the sector.
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