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Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study
Andrea Lanes, Jennifer L Kuk, Hala Tamim
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-302
Abstract: An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES), was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model.The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS.A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers.Postpartum depression (PPD) refers to a non-psychotic depressive episode that begins in or extends into the postpartum period [1,2]. PPD can evolve from a preexisting case of the baby blues, or can become apparent after the first weeks of giving birth and can last as long as 14 months [1,3-5]. Symptoms include anxiety, guilt, negative maternal attitudes, and poor parenting self-efficacy [3,6,7]. A multitude of treatment options for PPD exist, including interpersonal therapy and the most common treatment, pharmaceutical intervention [1,8].Mothers who suffer from PPD endure significant consequences, especially with their ability to cope with life events, including parenting tasks [9]. PPD elicits negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment; there is a withdrawn and disengaged behaviour in the mother and/or intrusive and hostile mother-infant communication [10-13]. Research has shown that experiencing symptoms o
Relationship of postnatal depressive symptoms to infant temperament, maternal expectations, social support and other potential risk factors: findings from a large Australian cross-sectional study
John G Eastwood, Bin B Jalaludin, Lynn A Kemp, Hai N Phung, Bryane EW Barnett
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-148
Abstract: Mothers (n=15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2–3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were EPDS >9 and >12. Logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis.The prevalence of EPDS >9 was 16.93 per 100 (95% CI: 16.34 to 17.52) and EPDS >12 was 7.73 per 100 (95% CI: 6.96 to 7.78). The final parsimonious logistic regression models included measures of infant behaviour, financial stress, mother’s expectation of motherhood, emotional support, sole parenthood, social support and mother’s country of birth.Infant temperament and unmet maternal expectations have a strong association with depressive symptoms with implications for the design of both preventative and treatment strategies. The findings also support the proposition that social exclusion and social isolation are important determinants of maternal depression.The impact of maternal depressive illness on subsequent child development is well described [1,2]. There have been extensive studies that have shown that children of mothers who were depressed during infancy are more likely to have behavioural and psychological problems [3-5]. Postnatal maternal depression has also been shown to be associated with impairment of cognitive development and secure attachment [6-8]. Maternal depression is thus a significant public health problem with short and long term impacts on cognitive, emotional, social and behavioural development of infants [8].The majority of estimates of prevalence in industrialised countries are between 13–20 percent of women [9]. A recent large Australian study found 15.5 percent of postnatal women had depressive symptoms [10]. While the overall prevalence of postpartum depression is similar to other life periods, there is some evidence that there is an increased risk of depression occurring in the early postpartum period [11,12]. Beck undertook a meta-analysis of 84 published studies of postnatal depression and identified
The effect of telephone-based interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of postpartum depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Cindy-Lee Dennis, Paula Ravitz, Sophie Grigoriadis, Melissa Jovellanos, Ellen Hodnett, Lori Ross, John Zupancic
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-38
Abstract: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of training nurses to deliver IPT; (3) provide an economic evaluation of an IPT intervention; (4) investigate the utility of the EPDS in general clinical practice to identify depressed mothers; and (5) present valuable information regarding PPD, along with associated couple adjustment, co-morbid anxiety and self-reported attachment among a mixed rural and urban Canadian population.Current Controlled Trials Ltd. ISRCTN88987377.
Withdrawn  [PDF]
Nil
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: This paper has been withdrawn.
Withdrawn  [PDF]
Hajime Moriya
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: This paper has been withdrawn.
withdrawn  [PDF]
Xiao-Gang Wen
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: This paper has been withdrawn by the author.
withdrawn  [PDF]
W. Kuo
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: This paper has been withdrawn by the authors due to new experimental results.
Impact of a Manualized Multifocal Perinatal Home-Visiting Program Using Psychologists on Postnatal Depression: The CAPEDP Randomized Controlled Trial  [PDF]
Romain Dugravier, Florence Tubach, Thomas Saias, Nicole Guedeney, Blandine Pasquet, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Susana Tereno, Bertrand Welniarz, Joana Matos, the CAPEDP study group , Antoine Guedeney, Tim Greacen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072216
Abstract: Context Postnatal maternal depression (PND) is a significant risk factor for infant mental health. Although often targeted alongside other factors in perinatal home-visiting programs with vulnerable families, little impact on PND has been observed. Objective This study evaluates the impact on PND symptomatology of a multifocal perinatal home-visiting intervention using psychologists in a sample of women presenting risk factors associated with infant mental health difficulties. Methods 440 primiparous women were recruited at their seventh month of pregnancy. All were future first-time mothers, under 26, with at least one of three additional psychosocial risk factors: low educational level, low income, or planning to raise the child without the father. The intervention consisted of intensive multifocal home visits through to the child’s second birthday. The control group received care as usual. PND symptomatology was assessed at baseline and three months after birth using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Results At three months postpartum, mean (SD) EPDS scores were 9.4 (5.4) for the control group and 8.6 (5.4) for the intervention group (p = 0.18). The difference between the mean EPDS scores was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.35; 1.34). The intervention group had significantly lower EPDS scores than controls in certain subgroups: women with few depressive symptoms at inclusion (EPDS <8): difference = 1.66 (95%CI: 0.17; 3.15), p = 0.05, adjusted for baseline EPDS score), women who were planning to raise the child with the child’s father: difference = 1.45 (95%CI: 0.27; 2.62), p = 0.04 (adjusted); women with a higher educational level: difference = 1.59 (95%CI: 0.50; 2.68) p = 0.05 (adjusted). Conclusion CAPEDP failed to demonstrate an overall impact on PND. However, post-hoc analysis reveals the intervention was effective in terms of primary prevention and in subgroups of women without certain risk factors. Effective overall reduction of PND symptomatology for young, first-time mothers presenting additional psychosocial risk factors may require more tailored interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00392847 Promoting Parental Skills and Enhancing Attachment in Early Childhood (CAPEDP)
Influence of breastfeeding on maternal blood pressure at one month postpartum  [cached]
Ebina S,Kashiwakura I
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012,
Abstract: Satoko Ebina,1 Ikuo Kashiwakura21Department of Disability and Health, 2Department of Radiological Life Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki, JapanBackground: The benefits of breastfeeding for improved health and developmental outcomes in mothers and their infants have been widely recognized. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether feeding modes influence maternal blood pressure at one month postpartum.Methods: The pregnancy charts of 407 women who delivered at a birthing center in rural Japan between August 1998 and September 2007 were analyzed. The criteria for inclusion were low-risk, full-term pregnancy (duration, 37–42 weeks) resulting in spontaneous vaginal deliveries, intrapartum hemorrhage < 500 mL, and a healthy infant (Apgar score ≥ 8 at one minute).Results: The subjects were classified into three groups based on feeding modes. The proportion of each mode was 28.3% in the breastfeeding group, 56.5% in the mixed-feeding group, and 15.2% in the formula-feeding group. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) in mothers at one month postpartum for each feeding mode was 118.4 ± 8.7 mmHg in the breastfeeding group, 120.6 ± 9.3 mmHg in the mixed-feeding group, and 122.0 ± 9.9 mmHg in the formula-feeding group. SBP at one month postpartum in the breastfeeding group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. No significant differences were observed in diastolic blood pressure in the three groups at one month postpartum.Conclusion: Breastfeeding resulted in lower SBP in mothers at one month postpartum compared with those using other feeding modes, thus indicating an effect of breastfeeding on maternal blood pressure.Keywords: breastfeeding, blood pressure, feeding mode, postpartum
Influence of breastfeeding on maternal blood pressure at one month postpartum
Ebina S, Kashiwakura I
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S33379
Abstract: fluence of breastfeeding on maternal blood pressure at one month postpartum Original Research (2794) Total Article Views Authors: Ebina S, Kashiwakura I Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 333 - 339 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S33379 Received: 27 April 2012 Accepted: 06 June 2012 Published: 11 July 2012 Satoko Ebina,1 Ikuo Kashiwakura2 1Department of Disability and Health, 2Department of Radiological Life Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki, Japan Background: The benefits of breastfeeding for improved health and developmental outcomes in mothers and their infants have been widely recognized. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether feeding modes influence maternal blood pressure at one month postpartum. Methods: The pregnancy charts of 407 women who delivered at a birthing center in rural Japan between August 1998 and September 2007 were analyzed. The criteria for inclusion were low-risk, full-term pregnancy (duration, 37–42 weeks) resulting in spontaneous vaginal deliveries, intrapartum hemorrhage < 500 mL, and a healthy infant (Apgar score ≥ 8 at one minute). Results: The subjects were classified into three groups based on feeding modes. The proportion of each mode was 28.3% in the breastfeeding group, 56.5% in the mixed-feeding group, and 15.2% in the formula-feeding group. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) in mothers at one month postpartum for each feeding mode was 118.4 ± 8.7 mmHg in the breastfeeding group, 120.6 ± 9.3 mmHg in the mixed-feeding group, and 122.0 ± 9.9 mmHg in the formula-feeding group. SBP at one month postpartum in the breastfeeding group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. No significant differences were observed in diastolic blood pressure in the three groups at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Breastfeeding resulted in lower SBP in mothers at one month postpartum compared with those using other feeding modes, thus indicating an effect of breastfeeding on maternal blood pressure.
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