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Análisis de la eficacia de los planes de manejo de bosque nativo en la provincia de Chubut, Argentina Analysis of the effectiveness of native forest management plans in Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina  [cached]
FRANCISCO ANDRES CARABELLI,JUAN JOSE FERRANDO
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2004,
Abstract: La provincia del Chubut posee, en la zona andina, 1.000.000 de hectáreas de bosques nativos, de las cuales 133.000 hectáreas, mayoritariamente conformadas por bosques puros de Nothofagus pumilio "lenga" (90%) se consideran aptas para la producción de madera. De ellas, aproximadamente 10.000 hectáreas han sido o son objeto de algún régimen de aprovechamiento forestal. En 1992 se pusieron en vigencia unas normas específicas que básicamente exigen a quienes pretenden extraer madera del bosque nativo la presentación de planes de manejo forestal. Mediante este estudio analizamos planes de manejo presentados a la autoridad forestal de la provincia con el objeto de discutir la eficacia real de estos planes como herramientas para una administración del bosque nativo capaz de promover a mediano y largo plazo la conservación del recurso. Entre los principales resultados debe destacarse que existe una notable falta de correspondencia entre planificación y ejecución, la que se pone en evidencia por: 1) Deficiencias en las caracterizaciones estructurales y en las estimaciones volumétricas; 2) Conflictos en el uso de los recursos, y 3) Conflicto de intereses entre los empresarios y el Estado. Native forests in Chubut Province cover an area of 1,000,000 hectares, of which 133,000 hectares are considered suitable for timber production. Approximately 10,000 hectares of this productive forest area has been, or is currently, the object of some form of timber exploitation. Pure Nothofagus pumilio forests (known colloquially as "lenga" forests) make up the largest native forest area (90%) in the designated land. In 1992, specific norms were introduced requiring those who intend to extract native forest timber to present management plans. The management plans presented to the provincial forest authority were analyzed with the aim of assessing their actual effectiveness as administrative tools for promoting the sustainable conservation of forest resources. One of the main conclusions which needs to be highlighted is the remarkable lack of coordination between planning and execution. This arises from: 1) Deficiencies in the structural characterization and volumetric estimation of the forest; 2) Conflicts over resource use, and 3) Conflicts of interests between businessmen and the state.
Planes de desarrollo y planes de vida: diálogo de saberes? Development Plans and Life Plans: Knowledge Sharing?  [cached]
Vieco Albarracín Juan José
Mundo Amazónico , 2010, DOI: 10.5113/ma.1.9918
Abstract: El artículo explora las posibilidades de establecer un diálogo de saberes entre los planes de desarrollo estatales y los planes de vida elaborados por las organizaciones indígenas, en particular el plan de vida de la Asociación de autoridades indígenas del resguardo Tikuna, Cocama, Yagua (Aticoya), municipio de Puerto Nari o, Amazonas, Colombia. La Constitución de 1991 incluyó la ETI (Entidad territorial indígena) como una entidad territorial de orden constitucional tal como el municipio, el departamento y el distrito. Esto implica que los resguardos y las asociaciones indígenas manejen recursos públicos para lo cual deben dise ar un plan de vida. Esta inclusión y reconocimiento de los pueblos indígenas conlleva al hecho de que los planes de vida se deben articular con los planes de desarrollo nacional, departamental y municipal. El artículo ilustra esta situación, mediante la comparación entre dos programas asistencialistas estatales –Resa (Red de Seguridad Alimentaria) y Familias Guardabosques– y los proyectos productivos y de servicios (turismo) ejecutados por Aticoya y los cabildos de las comunidades de los ríos Amazonas y Loretoyacu. This article explores the possibilities of establishing knowledge sharing between governmental development plans and the “life plans” (planes de vida) made by indigenous organizations, in particular the life plan of the Asociación de Autoridades Indígenas del Resguardo Tikuna, Cocama, Yagua (Aticoya), municipality of Puerto Nari o, Amazonas, Colombia. Colombia’s Constitution of 1991 created the ETI (Entidad Territorial Indígena,“indigenous territorial entity”) as a territorial unit, just like municipalities, departments, and districts. This means that indigenous reservations (or “reserves” or “preserves”) and associations should manage public funds, for which they must design a life plan. This inclusion and recognition of indigenous peoples entails that those life plans should articulate with the municipal, departmental, and national development plans. The article illustrates this situation by comparing two welfare programs –Resa (Red de Seguridad Alimentaria “Food Security Network”) and Familias Guardabosques (“Forest Ranger Families”)– and two income-generating productive and service (tourism) projects carried out by Aticoya and the local indigenous councils of communities on the Amazon and Loretoyacu Rivers.
Sustainable Forest Management in Cameroon Needs More than Approved Forest Management Plans  [cached]
Paolo Omar. Cerutti,Robert Nasi,Luca Tacconi
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: One of the main objectives of the 1994 Cameroonian forestry law is to improve the management of production forests by including minimum safeguards for sustainability into compulsory forest management plans. As of 2007, about 3.5 million hectares (60%) of the productive forests are harvested following the prescriptions of 49 approved management plans. The development and implementation of these forest management plans has been interpreted by several international organizations as long awaited evidence that sustainable management is applied to production forests in Cameroon. Recent reviews of some plans have concluded, however, that their quality was inadequate. This paper aims at taking these few analyses further by assessing the actual impacts that approved management plans have had on sustainability and harvesting of commercial species. We carry out an assessment of the legal framework, highlighting a fundamental flaw, and a thorough comparison between data from approved management plans and timber production data. Contrary to the principles adhered to by the 1994 law, we find that the government has not yet succeeded in implementing effective minimum sustainability safeguards and that, in 2006, 68% of the timber production was still carried out as though no improved management rules were in place. The existence of a number of approved management plans cannot be used a proxy for proof of improved forest management.
Análisis conceptual y evolutivo de los planes de pensiones en Espa a Conceptual and Evolutionary Analysis of Pension Plans in Spain
Yaiza García Padrón,Juan García Boza
Gaceta Laboral , 2006,
Abstract: Los Planes de Pensiones son uno de los instrumentos de previsión que mayor importancia tienen en Espa a y que, además, dada su naturaleza social han sido impulsados por el Gobierno. Por ello este trabajo analiza los Planes de Pensiones en Espa a, exponiendo sus principales características y realizando un estudio sobre su evolución y desarrollo en este país europeo. Así, el análisis de la evolución de los Planes de Pensiones se lleva a cabo atendiendo, además, a las diversas modalidades existentes y teniendo presente tanto la situación económica del país como los cambios legislativos que afectan a los Planes. Pension plans are one of the most important social security instruments in Spain and given their social nature, they have been promoted by the government. This paper analyzes pension plans in Spain, explaining their principle characteristics and undertaking a study of their evolution and development in this European country. The analysis of the evolution of pension plans is undertaken by studying the diverse modalities that exist and taking into account the economic situation of the country as changes in legislation affect such plans.
Sustainability and Forest Certification as a Framework for a Capstone Forest Resource Management Plans Course  [PDF]
Christine M. Watts, Lauren S. Pile, Thomas J. Straka
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23019
Abstract: Forest sustainability is the foundation of forestry and modern forest management. Originally the central concept was sustained-yield and maximum timber production and then multiple-use and other non-timber values gained importance. After the Rio Conference and development of the Montréal Process in the early 1990’s, forest sustainability rapidly gained importance and various forest certification schemes developed to certify forest products that were grown using sustainable forest management. Forest sustainability and forest certification have become critical topics in forestry curricula. The American Tree Farm System is one of the important North American forest certification organizations. Modern forestry curricula often include a capstone course where forest management plans are developed. We describe a capstone course at Clemson University under development that uses the management standards and management plan template of the American Tree Farm System as a framework for students to develop actual forest management plans for local forest owners. The material is integrated into a series of four courses leading up to the capstone course. The course offered a hands-on approach for students to create management plans using actual certification standards and the system’s management plan template. In addition, students received specialized training to qualify as auditors for the certification system. This is an example of forest sustainability being integrated into the forestry curriculum.
Consanguine Philosophies of Traditional Timber-Based and Contemporary Sustainability-Based Forest Resource Management Plans  [PDF]
Thomas J. Straka, Robert D. Tew, Tamara L. Cushing
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.45048
Abstract:

The earliest American forest resource management plans date to the birth of the forestry profession around 1900. For the next half century, these management plans were essentially timber production management plans. Certainly, other forest values, especially watershed protection, were important parts of the planning. But not until the second half of the twentieth century did multiple-use and a wide array of forest values become normal components of a forest management plan. Within the last twenty-five years forest management plans have developed a forest stewardship or sustainable forest management foundation. That is, a forest resource management plan is now expected to consider an entire set of forest values, to have a long-term sustainability focus, and to meet a set of expected management and operational criteria. Often, the forest management plan is the basis of a forest certification scheme. The early forest management plans were primarily timber-based and thus had a commercial or financial focus. Today’s forest management plans are based on multiple forest values and may or may not have a financial focus. We contrast the traditional timber management plan with today’s sustainable forest management plan, realizing the basis of both plans is by definition the forest or the timber. Involving both timber harvesting activities and the operational foundation of the sustainable forest management plan is essentially a timber management plan. One cannot ignore the fact that all forest management plans accomplish silvicultural objectives via manipulation of timber density variables, like stocking and spacing. Management of a forest still involves timber harvests. Our discussion shows that the timber management plan is still very much alive and forms the basis of modern sustainable forest management plans.

Assessment of Three Heuristics for Developing Large-Scale Spatial Forest Harvest Scheduling Plans  [PDF]
J. Zhu,P. Bettinger
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In this study, three heuristics were developed to assess the quality of forest plans that can be developed and the time required to develop them. The three heuristics include threshold accepting, 1-opt tabu search and a combined heuristic which consisted of threshold accepting, 1-opt tabu search and 2-opt tabu search. The combined heuristic was developed to capitalize on the unique search properties of both threshold accepting and tabu search. Present hypothesis was that each of the three heuristics would produce forest plans of approximately equal solution quality. The three heuristics are assessed using forest plans developed from nine hypothetical landownerships containing various ownership patterns and age class distributions. The combined heuristic found the highest quality forest plans for most problems with older and normal age class distributions. In problems with younger age class distributions, the combined heuristic produced slightly inferior solutions as compared to threshold accepting. The variation in forest plan quality was lowest when using the combined heuristic or threshold accepting, thus these two processes are of value for large-scale forest plan development efforts.
The “Forest Fire Project”, National cartographic portal of the Italian Environmental Department: an example of management of cartographic data to support forest fires fighting plans in national parks
Petrucci B,Capitoni B,Borelli R,Popolizio F
Forest@ , 2010, DOI: 10.3832/efor0609-007
Abstract: The “Forest Fire Project” on the National cartographic portal (http://www.pcn.minambiente.it) has been created by the Italian Ministry of Environment Territory and Sea (METS). The project is intended to support forest fire fighting plans in national protected areas as provided for by article 8 of the law November 21th 2000, no. 353 “Framework law on forest fires”. The project brings out the results of previous projects carried out in collaboration with several research institutes. Cartographic information is made available as free and reliable knowledge base in order to facilitate the draw up and implementation of the “Forest Fire Plans”, including the actual activity of forest fire extinction. Map information can be further implemented by various subjects such as researchers, land planning programmers or managers. The National cartographic portal gives the opportunity of overlaying various cartographic information and base maps supporting the “Forest Fire Project”; moreover it is possible to add other layers from other sources, through URL. Adequate “personalised” overlaps - which can be saved on one’s own GIS - allow in depth analysis and deductions aimed at specific objectives of territorial planning and management and in particular of Forest Fire Fighting Plans.
La formación en las políticas de empleo: Los planes territoriales de empleo Training in employment policy: The employment territorial plans
Carmen Rosa Delgado Acosta,Ma del Carmen Díaz Rodríguez
Trabajo y sociedad , 2012,
Abstract: En las políticas educativas y en las de empleo se asigna a la formación permanente un destacado lugar, al atribuírsele las facultades de mejorar el desarrollo individual y colectivo, al tiempo que facilita y amplía las oportunidades laborales y favorece el desarrollo de los territorios. Conocer el papel de la formación destinada a los trabajadores en las políticas activas de empleo es el eje básico de este artículo. Para ello, se indaga primero en las estrategias formativas adoptadas por la Unión Europea y Espa a desde 1990 y, a continuación se analizan las disposiciones educativas y de empleo del Archipiélago Canario. Por último, se valora su alcance real a partir del examen de los Planes Territoriales Insulares de Empleo y su adaptación a las particularidades sociales y económicas a escala insular. Lifelong learning has a key role within education and job policies because of its supposed capability to improve individual and collective development as well as it promotes job chances and territorial development. The paper analizes the role of workers learning in active employment policies. First, it explores European Union and Spain learning strategies since 1990 and then educational and employment provisions in the Canary Islands are examined. Finally Employment Territorial Plans in the Canary Islands are assessed taking into account island scale especificities.
Conditions for the Occurrence of Decoupling Planes in Anisotropic Elastic Materials Conditions pour la présence de plans de découplage dans les matériaux élastiques anisotropes  [cached]
Helbig K.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1998064
Abstract: Planes of symmetry are often identified by the existence of pure cross-plane polarization. However, this type of polarization can occur without the plane being a plane of symmetry. Planes that support cross-plane polarization are called decoupling planes , since the system of three coupled linear equations in the direction cosines of the polarization vector decouples into a single cross-plane equation and a coupled pair of in-plane equations. Only if the direction perpendicular to a decoupling plane is a longitudinal direction(i. e. , if in the direction there are pure P- and S-waves), it is a plane of symmetry. Without the observation of the associated longitudinal direction, a rawdecoupling plane might be mis-interpreted as a plane of symmetry. The plane perpendicular to the i-direction is a decoupling plane if in four-subscript notation all stiffnesses with a single subscript i vanish; the i-direction is a longitudinal di-rection if all stiffnesses with three subscripts i vanish. In media of orthorhombic or higher symmetry all stiffnesses with any single or triple subscript vanish; therefore raw decoupling planes can occur only in media of monoclinic or triclinic symmetry. In triclinic symmetry, two mutually perpendicular raw decoupling planes can occur. Decoupling planes intersecting under an oblique angle are possible if the stiffnesses satisfy a number of constraints. Les plans de symétrie sont souvent identifiés par l'existence d'une polarisation pure perpendiculaire à ces plans. Cependant, ce type de polarisation peut appara tre sans que le plan soit un plan de symétrie. Les plans qui présentent une polarisation pure suivant leurs normales sont appelés plans de découplage , car le système de trois équations linéaires couplées par les cosinus directeurs du vecteur de polarisation se découple en une seule équation relative à la polarisation normale au plan et en deux équations couplées relatives aux polarisations dans le plan. C'est un plan de symétrie uniquement dans le cas où la direction perpendiculaire à un plan de découplageest une direction longitudinale(c'est-à-dire, si dans cette direction, il y a des ondes P et des ondes S pures). Sans la présence de la direction purement longitudinale associée, un plan de découplage brutpourrait être interprété faussement comme un plan de symétrie. Le plan perpendiculaire à la direction i est un plan de découplage si, en notation à quatre indices, toutes les rigidités avec un seul indice i disparaissent ; la direction i est une direction longitudinale si toutes les rigidités avec trois indices i disparai
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