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Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience
Halida Sarajli?
Tr?i?te/Market , 2007,
Abstract: By gaining political power, individuals and political par ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.
Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness in Swedish Patients with Mental Illness  [PDF]
Lars Jacobsson, Magnus Lejon, Anette Edin-Liljegren
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2017.73012
Abstract: Stigma and discrimination because of epilepsy, leprosy and HIV/aids has decreased over the years, but this has not happened as regards mental illness. One aspect of the stigma issue is what has been described as self-stigmatization, the way the mentally ill look at themselves. The aim of this study was to illuminate the self-perception of mentally ill persons in a Swedish setting. An internationally well established questionnaire, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI) was used to investigate two samples of out-patients from northern Sweden (N = 260). Fifty two percent reported “minimum stigma”, 35% “mild” and 13% “moderate/severe” stigma. As many as 58% agreed to the statement “I am embarrassed or ashamed that I have a mental illness”. The levels of internalized stigma are rather high, but somewhat lower than reported from some other European and an Iranian study using the same methodology. In spite of several campaigns aimed at reducing the stigma and discrimination because of mental illness in Sweden, still the experience of self stigma is rather high. There is an urgent need to further developed anti-stigma strategies.
Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?
Sara Evans-Lacko, Jillian London, Kirsty Little, Claire Henderson, Graham Thornicroft
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-339
Abstract: 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p < 0.001) increase in persons agreeing with the statement: If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions.Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.In January 2009, Time to Change launched a national social marketing campaign aiming to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems[1-3]. The key campaign messages are: 'There is something you can do to help'; 'Mental illness is one of our last taboos'; and 'Mental illness is far more common than you think'. Preceding the launch of the national campaign, a smaller scale local campaign took place in Cambridge, England over a 4-week period in 2008. Compared with the subsequent national campaign, the Cambridge intervention was more localised, shorter in duration (4 weeks v
The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness  [cached]
Aysegul Bilge,Olcay Cam
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2010,
Abstract: In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1): 71-78]
Stigma of Mental Illness as Cause of Divorce in Byzantium  [PDF]
Lambrini Kourkouta,Athanassia Nestor,Petros Ouzounakis
International Journal of Caring Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In Byzantium mentally ill persons were stigmatized, despite the fact that they could live normally. This stigma consisted a very serious problem not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families.Through the legislation of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and also the Leo's VI the Wise (9th – 10th A.C.) legislation, mental illness was a main health cause of divorce and it concerned both males and females.During these years men were treated different than women, which had to wait five years in order to get a divorce. On the opposite men had to wait only three years to get a divorce for the cause of mentally retarded wife.
Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures
Elaine Brohan, Mike Slade, Sarah Clement, Graham Thornicroft
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-80
Abstract: A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009.57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties.The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose.The classic starting point for defining the stigma of mental illness is Goffman's 'an attribute that is deeply discrediting'. The recognition of this attribute leads the stigmatised person to be 'reduced... from a whole and usual person to a tainted or discounted one' p.3 [1]. This presents stigma as the relationship between attribute and stereotype. In Goffman's terms, attributes can be categorised in three main groups: 1) abominations of the body e.g. physical disability or visible deformity, 2) blemishes of individual character e.g. mental illness, criminal conviction or 3) tribal stigmas e.g. race, gender, age.The work of Jones and colleagues built on these categorisations with a focus on the study of 'marked relationships' [2]. In this definition, stigma occurs when the mark links the identified person via attributional processes to undesirable characteristics which discredit him or her. They propose six dimensions of stigma:1. Concealability: how obvious or detectable a characteristic is to others2. Course: whether the difference is life-long or reversible over time3.
Internalized stigma of mental illness in Sweden and Iran—A comparative study  [PDF]
Lars Jacobsson, Helia Ghanean, Birgitta T?rnkvist
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34039
Abstract:

Objectives: Stigma and discrimination because of mental illness is still prevalent even in high-income countries where a lot of emphasis has been given to anti-stigma activities and measures to reduce the marginalization of these persons. One aspect of the stigma issue is the self-stigmatization that persons suffering from mental illness are experiencing. In this study two different societies have been compared as regards internalized stigma of mental illness. Methods: A widely used questionnaire was used by the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI). One sample of psychiatric patients from Sweden (N = 163) and from Iran (N = 138) is compared. Results: The Swedish sample generally reports lower levels of experienced stigma except for items covering selfblame and feelings of alienation. Conclusions: There are reasons to consider the aspect of self-stigmatization when working with mentally ill persons even in high income countries with well developed mental health services.

The 2006 Anti-‘Danish Cartoons’ Riot in LahoreOutrage and the Emotional Landscape of Pakistani Politics  [cached]
Amélie Blom
South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal , 2008,
Abstract: How can a long-distance outrage provoke social protest, even riots? The street demonstration against the 'Danish cartoons' that took place in Lahore on 14th February 2006 was primarily an expressive protest, publicly voicing its anger and moral discontent. As such, it offers a fruitful micropolitical site to understand how emotions contribute to shape the culture of dissent in contemporary Pakistan. Based on interviews with protestors, this article elaborates, first, on the linkages between anger, honour, the cognitively framed belief of being 'provoked', and biographical emotional repertoires. Second, it looks at the conflicting emotions displayed in the public arena: a desire of communitas yet destruction, an expression of compulsory feeling but subversive emotions as well. Finally, it argues that this protest has to be replaced in the larger framework of the state's singular politics of emotion that informs public debates in Pakistan, and particularly so in Punjab. Hence, the article focuses on a dimension often neglected in the literature on emotions and social movements: the emotional-institutional context.
Stigma of Mental Illness: Social Distancing Attitudes among Registered Nurses in Australia  [PDF]
Tan Kan Ku, Michael Ha
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.312007
Abstract:

Background: Stigma of mental illness is often examined in social psychology and psychiatric rehabilitation using attitude studies. Participants of these studies are among health professionals and general public members. A common measure of stigma is using validated scale which measures the opinion on mental illness. Method: A cross-sectional survey was presented to 208 registered nurses. Principal component analyses (with oblique rotation) were used to identify underlying dimensionality in the correlations of items for social distancing. Subscale score variations were analysed across nurse type and ethnicity to examine the discriminant validity of the subscale. Results: Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed one dimension accounting for 43.5% of the variations within items for social distancing. Developed as scale, termed Stigma towards Psychiatric Patients (STPP), reliability analysis indicated high internal consistency with respective alpha coefficient of 0.8. Chinese general nurses scored highest on social distancing than the other three groups: Chinese psychiatric nurses, Anglo general and Anglo psychiatric nurses. Conclusion: Psychometric evaluation of the Stigma Scale (STPP) suggests it is a reliable instrument for measuring social distancing attitudes towards mental illness. The effect of ethnicity on stigmatising attitudes is not entirely accounted for by exposure to people with mental illness.

Components of Implicit Stigma against Mental Illness among Chinese Students  [PDF]
Xiaogang Wang, Xiting Huang, Todd Jackson, Ruijun Chen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046016
Abstract: Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.
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