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An easy way to estimate energy expenditure from hemodynamic data in septic patients
Basile-Filho, Anibal;Martins, Maria Auxiliadora;Marson, Flavio;Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502008000700019
Abstract: purpose: the purpose of this study is to compare the resting energy expenditure (ree) obtained by indirect calorimetry (ic) to the ree calculated by predictive equations (brandi and liggett) using the oxygen consumption (vo2) obtained by fick's method in septic patients. methods: prospective study in septic patients admitted in an intensive care unit of a university hospital. fifteen adult patients (11 men and four women) were studied. vo2 measurements were made using a portable metabolic cart connected to a respirator and a pulmonary artery catheter. results: the apache ii at admission was 22.6±7.2 with a mortality risk of 46.1±27.7%. the mean ree obtained by ic and by the brandi and liggett equations were 1699±271, 1815±355 and 1361±277 kcal.day-1 respectively. there were no statistically significant differences between the two methods, with the two means showing a difference of 8.7%. ree values were close for ic x brandi (r=0.80), but the ic x liggett correlation was only 0.58. conclusions: the results suggest that ree can be easily calculated by obtaining vo2 with the swan-ganz catheter and using the brandi equation even for septic patients under mechanical ventilation.
Physical model of Schrodinger's electron. Heisenberg convenient way for description of its quantum behaviour  [PDF]
Josiph Mladenov Rangelov
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: The object of this paper is to discuss the physical interpretation of quantum behaviour of Schrodinger electron (SchEl) and bring to light on the cause for the Heisenberg convenient operator way of its describing, using the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics laws and its mathematical results. We describe the forced stochastically diverse circular oscillation motion, created by force of the electrical interaction of the SchEl's elementary electric charge with the electric intensity of the resultant quantum electromagnetic field of the existing StchVrtPhtns, as a solution of Abraham-Lorentz equation. By dint of this equation we obtain that the smooth thin line of a classical macro particle is rapidly broken of many short and disorderly orientated lines, owing the continuous dispersion of the quantum micro particle (QntMicrPrt) on the StchVrtPhtns. Between two successive scattering the centers of diverse circular oscillations with stochastically various radii are moving along this short disordered line. These circular oscillations lie within the flats, perpendicular to same disordered short line, along which are moving its centers. In a result of same forced circular oscillation motion the smooth thin line of the LrEl is roughly spread and turned out into some cylindrically wide path of the SchEl. Hence the dispersions of different dynamical parameters, determining the state of the SchEl, which are results of its continuously interaction with the resultant quantum electromagnetic field of the StchVrtPhtns. The absence of the smooth thin line trajectory at the circular oscilation moving of the QntMicrPrt forces us to use the matrix elements (Fourier components) of its roughly spread wide cylindrical path for its description.
Bayesian Geoadditive Expectile Regression  [PDF]
Elisabeth Waldmann,Fabian Sobotka,Thomas Kneib
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: Regression classes modeling more than the mean of the response have found a lot of attention in the last years. Expectile regression is a special and computationally convenient case of this family of models. Expectiles offer a quantile-like characterisation of a complete distribution and include the mean as a special case. In the frequentist framework the impact of a lot of covariates with very different structures have been made possible. We propose Bayesian expectile regression based on the asymmetric normal distribution. This renders possible incorporating for example linear, nonlinear, spatial and random effects in one model. Furthermore a detailed inference on the estimated parameters can be conducted. Proposal densities based on iterativly weighted least squares updates for the resulting Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation algorithm are proposed and the potential of the approach for extending the flexibility of expectile regression towards complex semiparametric regression specifications is discussed.
Revenue and Expenditure Nexus: A Case Study of Romania
Qazi Muhammad Adnan HYE,M. Anwar JALIL
Romanian Journal of Fiscal Policy , 2010,
Abstract: This study determines the causal relationship between the expenditure and revenue of government in the case of Romania by using the autoregressive distributive lag approach to cointegration, variance decomposition and rolling regression method. The results indicate that bidirectional long run relationship exist between expenditure and revenue of government. The variance decomposition method suggests government revenue shock has more sharply impact on the government expenditure as compared to the shock in government expenditure and response of government revenue collection.
Energy expenditure: components and evaluation methods
Pinheiro Volp,A. C.; Esteves de Oliveira,F. C.; Duarte Moreira Alves,R.; Esteves,E. A.; Bressan,J.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: the determination of energy expenditure, considering the physical activity level and health status, is very important to adjust the individuals' nutritional supply. energy expenditure can be determined by using indirect calorimetry, bioelectrical impedance, doubly labeled water, predictive equations, among others. all these methods have been used in clinical and research areas. however, considering the inconsistence in several research results, there is no consensus yet about the applicability of many of these methods. objectives: the aim of this review is to describe the components of energy expenditure and the methods for its determination and estimation, summarizing their main advantages and limitations. results and discussion: indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water are considered more accurate methods, but expensive. on the other hand, even though other methods present limitations, they are convenient and less expensive, and can be used with some caution.
Testing the Relationship between Government Revenue and Expenditure: Evidence from Nigeria
Kanayo Ogujiuba,Terfa W. Abraham
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v4n11p172
Abstract: The paper examines the revenue-spending hypothesis for Nigeria using macro data from 1970 to 2011. Correlation analysis, granger causality test, regression analysis, lag regression model, vector error correction model and impulse response analysis were the techniques used for analysis. The paper found that revenue and expenditure are highly correlated and that causality runs from revenue to expenditure in Nigeria. The vector error correction model also confirms that there is a significant long run relationship between revenue and expenditure implying that disequilibrium in expenditure can be corrected in the long run through policies that adjust oil and non-oil sector revenues. The lagged regression model showed that the positive relationship between revenue and expenditure reverts to negative at lag five thereby justifying the need for the use of medium term expenditure framework to monitor expenditure patterns in the short to medium term. The paper concludes that short term shocks from crude oil price passes through oil revenue to affect expenditure. This has led to swings in public expenditure pattern with sustained increase of recurrent expenditure over capital that has consequences for economic growth. Putting policies in place to enhance the performance of the non-oil sector and adopting expenditure framework that accounts for possible decline in crude oil prices was conceived as useful in enhancing a healthy revenue-expenditure relationship in Nigeria.
Effects of Public Expenditure on Industrial Sector Productivity in Nigeria  [cached]
Tawose Joseph
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2333
Abstract: It is obvious from literature that for any business entity to experience significant changes in its status, there is need for a well designed and holistic execution of both fiscal and monetary policy in that country. Public expenditure as one of the significant fiscal policy has its own multiplier effect on the organizations within the economic environment. Fiscal policy has both direct and indirect effect on industries. The policy primarily create enabling environment for the industries to perform. Government expenditure has capacity to influence the dynamics of industrial growth through its consequences for the effectiveness of resources allocation and accumulation of productive resources. The rate at which corruption, misallocation of resources and mismanagement of funds are increasing in government circle caused a great concern on whether the public expenditure actually impact positively on industrial sector. It is the concern that necessitated this research to find out the effect of public expenditure on industrial sector productivity in Nigeria. Ordinary least square multiple regression was adopted to carry out analysis on the relationship that exist between public expenditure and industrial sector productivity. In the model adopted, Index of industrial Production (IIP) serves as proxy for industrial productivity, while Total Government Expenditure (GEXP), Government Expenditure on Administration (GADM), Government Expenditure on Economic Services (GESC), and Government Expenditure on Social and Community Services (GSCS) and Government Expenditure on Transfer (GTRS) were proxies for government expenditure. The regression results showed that both government expenditure on administration and government expenditure on economic services have negative relationships with industrial productivity. This implies that when GADM and GECS are increasing, the IIP falls. Also when GSCS and GTRS are increasing, IIP also increases. The impact of each independent variable either negative or positive on industrial productivity is insignificant. This findings revealed the fundamental reasons why Nigerian economy remain underdeveloped, despite the huge amount spend every year for the past 52 years since her political independence. It was found out that all the explanatory variables in the model collectively explained about 86% changes in the behavior of industrial productivity in Nigeria. Generally, the research discovered that the public expenditure process in Nigeria as a whole is marred with mismanagement, misallocation allocation of resources and lack of leadership
Power allocation scheme based on minimizing total power expenditure in Two-Way relay system
Two-Way中继系统中基于最小化总功率的功率分配策略*

LIU Xiang,LIU Tong,LUO Ju,
刘翔
,刘通,罗菊

计算机应用研究 , 2011,
Abstract: In order to decrease the total power expenditure under a promised QoS in Two-Way relay system,this paper proposed an optimal power allocation scheme based on minimizing total power expenditure.First derived the close form of outage probability in Two-Way relay system.Then established an optimal model to minimize the total power expenditure under the condition that the outage probability was a constant.Solved the optimal model by Lagrange multiplier method.Simultation result shows the proposed strategy can a...
On the Conditions to Extend Ricci Flow  [PDF]
Bing Wang
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Along a Ricci flow solution on a closed manifold, we show that if Ricci curvature is uniformly bounded from below, then a scalar curvature integral bound is enough to extend flow. Moreover, this integral bound condition is optimal in some sense.
A convenient differential category  [PDF]
Richard Blute,Thomas Ehrhard,Christine Tasson
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we show that the category of Mackey-complete, separated, topological convex bornological vector spaces and bornological linear maps is a differential category. Such spaces were introduced by Fr\"olicher and Kriegl, where they were called convenient vector spaces. While much of the structure necessary to demonstrate this observation is already contained in Fr\"olicher and Kriegl's book, we here give a new interpretation of the category of convenient vector spaces as a model of the differential linear logic of Ehrhard and Regnier. Rather than base our proof on the abstract categorical structure presented by Fr\"olicher and Kriegl, we prefer to focus on the bornological structure of convenient vector spaces. We believe bornological structures will ultimately yield a wide variety of models of differential logics.
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