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Self-Fulfilling Prophecies as a Link between Men’s Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Behavior  [PDF]
Michael P. Haselhuhn, Elaine M. Wong, Margaret E. Ormiston
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072259
Abstract: The facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been identified as a reliable predictor of men’s behavior, with researchers focusing on evolutionary selection pressures as the underlying mechanism explaining these relationships. In this paper, we complement this approach and examine the extent to which social processes also determine the extent to which men’s fWHR serves as a behavioral cue. Specifically, we propose that observers’ treatment of target men based on the targets’ fWHR subsequently affects behavior, leading the targets to behave in ways that are consistent with the observers’ expectations (i.e., a self-fulfilling prophecy). Results from four studies demonstrate that individuals behave more selfishly when interacting with men with greater fWHRs, and this selfish behavior, in turn, elicits selfish behavior in others.
Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys  [PDF]
Carmen Emilia Lefevre, Vanessa A. D. Wilson, F. Blake Morton, Sarah F. Brosnan, Annika Paukner, Timothy C. Bates
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093369
Abstract: Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans.
A Lack of Sexual Dimorphism in Width-to-Height Ratio in White European Faces Using 2D Photographs, 3D Scans, and Anthropometry  [PDF]
Robin S. S. Kramer, Alex L. Jones, Robert Ward
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042705
Abstract: Facial width-to-height ratio has received a great deal of attention in recent research. Evidence from human skulls suggests that males have a larger relative facial width than females, and that this sexual dimorphism is an honest signal of masculinity, aggression, and related traits. However, evidence that this measure is sexually dimorphic in faces, rather than skulls, is surprisingly weak. We therefore investigated facial width-to-height ratio in three White European samples using three different methods of measurement: 2D photographs, 3D scans, and anthropometry. By measuring the same individuals with multiple methods, we demonstrated high agreement across all measures. However, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in the face. In our third study, we also found a link between facial width-to-height ratio and body mass index for both males and females, although this relationship did not account for the lack of dimorphism in our sample. While we showed sufficient power to detect differences between male and female width-to-height ratio, our results failed to support the general hypothesis of sexual dimorphism in the face.
Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces  [PDF]
Shawn N. Geniole, Amanda E. Keyes, Catherine J. Mondloch, Justin M. Carré, Cheryl M. McCormick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030366
Abstract: The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”.
Influence of different width/height ratio of maxillary anterior teeth in the attractiveness of gingival smiles
Borges, Ana Carolina Guimar?es;Seixas, Mayra Reis;Machado, Andre Wilson;
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2176-94512012000500016
Abstract: objective: to evaluate, among laypersons and orthodontists, the influence of the width/height proportions of upper anterior teeth on the smile attractiveness, in photographs of close up smile from three adult caucasian women, with 4 mm of gingival exposure. methods: the photographs of close up smiles were digitally manipulated and six images were created from each smile with teeth's width/height proportions in 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90%. then, all these images were manipulated again and a black mask covering all teeth from the lower arch was created. the figures were then assessed by 60 evaluators, 30 orthodontists and 30 laypersons, who assigned, in a visual analog scale, the level of attractiveness of each image. results: the obtained results, in general, showed that the proportions of 75%, 80% and 85% received the highest scores while the proportion of 65% received the lowest scores, for both groups of examiners (p < 0.05). when orthodontists and laypersons were compared, it was not found, in most situations, a significant statistical difference between their assessments (p > 0.05). yet, the comparison between scores assigned to smiles with and without inferior teeth showed that, for all situations, there was no statistically significant difference between them (p > 0.05). conclusion: for patients with gingival smile, the width/height proportions of upper anterior teeth considered more esthetic were the ones of 75%,80% and 85% for laypersons and orthodontists, and the presence or absence of inferior teeth did not affect the attractiveness level of the assessed smiles.
Analysis of width/height ratio and gingival zenith in patients with bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor
Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi;De-Marchi, Luciana Manzotti;Gribel, Bruno Fraz?o;Ramos, Adilson Luiz;Furquim, Laurindo Zanco;Pascotto, Renata Corrêa;
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2176-94512012000500013
Abstract: objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the width/length ratio and the gingival zenith (gz), by means of dental casts and digital caliper, in patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors after treatment. methods: the sample was composed of 52 subjects divided into 3 groups: brg (n = 18), patients with bilateral agenesis treated with tooth re-contouring; big (n = 10) patients with agenesis treated with implants and cg (n = 24), control group. the data were analyzed using shapiro-wilk, spearman correlation, wilcoxon, kruskal-wallis, t test and anova tests (p < 0.05). results: for the width/length ratio of the lateral incisors, big presented the lowest mean values (0.72 right and left), when compared with other groups. however, comparison between groups presented statistically significant differences for the right lateral incisor (big x cg) and for the canine (brg x cg). gz data evaluation showed the greatest difference for brg (0.5 right and 0.48 left). big (0.95 right and 0.98 left) and cg (0.98 right and 0.8 left) presented more similar values, nevertheless, without statistical difference (p > 0.05). gz data for the right and left sides of the smile were not considered statistically different. conclusion: although no statistical difference was found in the comparison between the groups, analysis of the descriptive values showed that group big showed the greatest difference in values with regard to width/length ratio. regarding gingival zenith, brg showed the greatest difference.
Facial approximation: Evaluation of dental and facial proportions with height
TA Esan, OE Oziegbe, HO Onapokya
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Fabrication of complete dentures requires the use of certain guidelines which are placed on the bite blocks to assist the clinician to have the maxillary anterior teeth restored to optimal dento-labial relations, in harmony with the overall facial appearance. Objective: To explore if any relationship exists between dental and facial proportions as well as the height of the individuals. Methods: Two hundred and four dental students of the Obafemi Awolowo University volunteered to participated in the study. The lower facial height, inter incisal, inter canine, and intercommisure distances, as well as the height of the participants were measured. The data were imputed, analyzed, and reported as simple frequency, means and standard deviations using the SPSS vs 11. Statistical significance was inferred at p<0.05. Result: The mean values of all the parameters measured were significantly higher in males than females. None of the mean values measured were coincident. However, a significant correlation exists between intercanine and interincisal distances(r=0.8) while a weak but significant negative correlation exists between the intercanine distance and the difference of the intercommisural and intercanine distances (r=-0.4). Conclusion: The study showed no relationship between intercanine distance, interincisal distance, lower facial height, and the height of the participants with the intercommissural distance. Hence, intercommissural distance may not be used in marking canine line during bite registration procedure. At best, 1.75-2.45 cm should be subtracted from the intercommissural distance to determine the intercanine distance.
Looking Like a Leader–Facial Shape Predicts Perceived Height and Leadership Ability  [PDF]
Daniel E. Re, David W. Hunter, Vinet Coetzee, Bernard P. Tiddeman, Dengke Xiao, Lisa M. DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones, David I. Perrett
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080957
Abstract: Judgments of leadership ability from face images predict the outcomes of actual political elections and are correlated with leadership success in the corporate world. The specific facial cues that people use to judge leadership remain unclear, however. Physical height is also associated with political and organizational success, raising the possibility that facial cues of height contribute to leadership perceptions. Consequently, we assessed whether cues to height exist in the face and, if so, whether they are associated with perception of leadership ability. We found that facial cues to perceived height had a strong relationship with perceived leadership ability. Furthermore, when allowed to manually manipulate faces, participants increased facial cues associated with perceived height in order to maximize leadership perception. A morphometric analysis of face shape revealed that structural facial masculinity was not responsible for the relationship between perceived height and perceived leadership ability. Given the prominence of facial appearance in making social judgments, facial cues to perceived height may have a significant influence on leadership selection.
Lack of Support for the Association between Facial Shape and Aggression: A Reappraisal Based on a Worldwide Population Genetics Perspective  [PDF]
Jorge Gómez-Valdés, Tábita Hünemeier, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez, Carolina Paschetta, Soledad de Azevedo, Marina F. González, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza, Héctor M. Pucciarelli, Francisco M. Salzano, Claiton H. D. Bau, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Rolando González-José
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052317
Abstract: Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation.
Correlation between some facial indexes and mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth  [cached]
Leila Ahmadian,Rasool Arbabi-Kalati,Farshid Arbabi-Kalati,Behrooz Soltani
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Both tooth size and shape of the anterior maxilla play important role in complete denture and facial esthetics. Tooth selection for an edentulous patient with no pre-extraction is very difficult. The purpose of this study was to analyze mesio-distal width of maxillary anterior teeth and to determine the presence of any relationship between them and other facial measurements.Materials and Method: In this cross-sectional study, after enrolment of 100 high school students, full-face standardized digital images of them were taken in frontal view. Bizaygomatic, interpupilary and interalar distance were measured by images. Width of teeth was determined on the casts. T-test and pearson correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the data.Results: Maxillary central incisor is the widest anterior tooth in both male and female. Correlation between bizaygomatic and interpupillay distances and central incisor width were not significant but between interalar and intercanine were significant.Conclusion: Based on this study, interalar distance is a better index to estimate the width of anterior teeth of maxilla in an edentulous patient
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