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Finite Element Analysis on a Square Canister Piezoelectric Energy Harvester in Asphalt Pavement  [PDF]
Hongbing Wang, Chunhua Sun
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.42035
Abstract: A novel square canister piezoelectric energy harvester was proposed for harvesting energy from asphalt pavement. The square of the harvester was of great advantage to compose the harvester array for harvesting energy from the asphalt pavement in a large scale. The open circuit voltage of the harvester was obtained by the piezoelectric constant d33 of the piezoelectric ceramic. The harvester is different from the cymbal harvester which works by the piezoelectric constant d31. The finite element model of the single harvester was constructed. The open circuit voltage increased with increase of the outer load. The finite element model of the single harvester buried in the asphalt pavement was built. The open circuit voltage, the deformation difference percent and the stress of the ceramic of the harvester were obtained with different buried depth. The open circuit voltage decreased when the buried depth was increased. The proper buried depth of the harvester should be selected as 30 - 50 mm. The effects of structure parameters on the open circuit voltage were gotten. The output voltage about 64.442 V could be obtained from a single harvester buried under 40 mm pavement at the vehicle load of 0.7 MPa. 0.047 mJ electric energy could be gotten in the harvester. The output power was about 0.705 mW at 15 Hz vehicle load frequency.
Design, Modeling and Analysis of Implementing a Multilayer Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Mechanism in the Vehicle Suspension  [PDF]
Wiwiek Hendrowati, Harus Laksana Guntur, I. Nyoman Sutantra
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.411094
Abstract: This paper deals with the design, modeling and analysis of implementing a Multilayer Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting (ML PZT VEH) Mechanism in the vehicle suspension. The principle of work of the proposed ML PZT VEH mechanism is reducing the relative motion of the suspension, amplifying the applied force to the PZT by a specific design of mechanism and combining a single layer PZT into multilayer PZT to increase the produced electricity. To maintain the performance of suspension as the original suspension, the ML PZT VEH mechanism is mounted in series with the spring of the suspension. The proposed ML PZT VEH mechanism and its implementation to the vehicle suspension were mathematically modeled. Responses of the vehicle before and after implementing ML PZT VEH mechanism were simulated. The results show the proposed mechanism can produce output voltage of 2.75 and power of 7.17 times bigger than direct mounting to the vehicle suspension. And the simulation result shows that mounting ML PZT VEH mechanism in series with the spring of the vehicle suspension does not change the performance of suspension.
Supersonic Flutter Utilization for Effective Energy-Harvesting Based on Piezoelectric Switching Control  [PDF]
Kanjuro Makihara,Shigeru Shimose
Smart Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/181645
Abstract: The harvesting of electrical energy generated from the flutter phenomenon of a plate wing is studied using the quasi-steady aerodynamic theory and the finite element method. The example of supersonic flutter structure comes from sounding rockets’ wings. Electrical energy is harvested from supersonic flutter by using piezoelectric patches and switching devices. In order to evaluate the harvesting performance, we simulate flutter dynamics of the plate wing to which piezoelectric patches are attached. We demonstrate that our harvesting system can generate much more electrical energy from wing flutter than conventional harvesting systems can. This flutter utilization changes our perception to a useful one in various fruitful applications from a destructive phenomenon. 1. Introduction Flutter is caused by the interaction between the structural motion of a wing and the aerodynamic load exerted on the wing. It is a typical self-excited aeroelastic phenomenon that occurs in wings, thin walls, and so on. Dowell [1] occurs most frequently within a high-speed, that is, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Lottati [2] investigated the effects of structural and aerodynamic damping on the speed of flutter of a composite plate wing. Tang and Dowell [3] have analyzed the nonlinear behavior of a flexible rotor blade due to structural free-play and aerodynamic stall nonlinearities. The analytical results were compared with experimental observations. Various studies have been conducted on flutter dynamics, such as prediction of flutter and robust structural optimization of wings [4]. The use of sophisticated smart materials such as piezoelectric materials, shape memory alloys, and magnetostrictive materials in aerospace engineering can lead to the development of new design concepts. A new design concept is to alter structural dynamics by exertion of force or deformation. Moon and Hwang [5] used the linear quadratic regulator theory to suppress nonlinear panel flutter. Han et al. [6] designed a mu-synthesis controller to enhance flutter suppression performance despite parametric uncertainties. Raja et al. [7] used multilayer piezoelectric actuators and piezoelectric sensors for constructing a linear quadratic Gaussian controller to suppress the flutter of a composite plate. Agneni et al. [8] applied this passive method to flutter suppression and demonstrated satisfactory suppression performance. However, flutter suppression performance achieved by adopting this passive method is poorer when the electrical resonance frequency is slightly different from the frequency
Energy Harvesting Strategy Using Piezoelectric Element Driven by Vibration Method  [PDF]
Dong-Gun Kim, So-Nam Yun, Young-Bog Ham, Jung-Ho Park
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.22014
Abstract: This study demonstrates a method for harvesting the electrical power by the piezoelectric actuator from vibration energy. This paper presents the energy harvesting technique using the piezoelectric element of a bimorph type driven by a geared motor and a vibrator. The geared motor is a type of PWM controlled device that is a combination of an oval shape cam with five gears and a speed controller. When using the geared motor, the piezoelectric element is size of 36L×13W×0.6H. The output voltage characteristics of the piezoelectric element were investigated in terms of the displacement and vibration. When using the vibrator, the electric power harvesting is based on piezoelectric effect and piezoelectric vibrator consists of a magnetic type oscillator, a cantilever, a bimorph actuator and controllers. Low frequency operating technique using piezoelectric vibrator is very important because normal vibration sources in the environment such as building, human body, windmill and ship have low frequency characteristics. We can know from this study results that there are many energy sources such as vibration, wind power and wave power. Also, these can be used to the energy harvesting system using smart device like piezoelectric element.
Finite Element Modeling of a Piezoelectric Composite Beam and Comparative Performance Study of Piezoelectric Materials for Voltage Generation  [PDF]
Action Nechibvute,Albert Chawanda,Pearson Luhanga
ISRN Materials Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/921361
Abstract: A comparative study of the traditional PZT ceramics and new single crystals is critical in selecting the best material and optimization of transducer design for applications such as conversion of ambient vibrations into useful electrical energy. However, due to material and fabrication costs and the need for rapid prototyping while optimizing transducer design, primary comparisons can be based on simulation. In this paper, the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element package was used to study the direct piezoelectric effect when an external load is applied at the free end of a piezoelectric composite beam. The primary output parameters such as electric potential and electric field were studied as a function of the input strain and stress. The modeling is presented for the relatively new single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN32) and three different lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PZT-4). Material performance was assessed by using a common geometry and identical excitation conditions for the different piezoelectric materials. For each material, there are three analyses performed, namely, static, eigenfrequency, and transient/time-dependent analysis. Comparative results clearly suggest that the new crystal material PMN32 is capable of outperforming presently useing piezoelectric ceramics for voltage generation. 1. Introduction Piezoelectric materials have the novel ability of transferring from electrical to mechanical energy and vice-versa. This property is observable in many crystalline materials such as lead zirconate (PZT) ceramics where the phenomenon has found practical use in sensors and actuators [1–3]. Recently, the direct piezoelectric effect has been applied in energy harvesting where mechanical deformation on the piezoelectric material caused by ambient vibrations is converted to useful electrical energy [4–6]. The electrical energy is used to power ultralow power electronics such as wireless sensor nodes and implantable biomedical devices [5–7]. The challenge facing piezoelectric energy harvesting is the low power output of the energy generators. One way of improving the direct piezoelectric effect and subsequently the energy harvesting capabilities of piezoelectric generators is the development of single crystal materials with high voltage generation abilities under low mechanical excitation compared to traditional PZT ceramics [8]. Understanding the direct piezoelectric performance of the PZT ceramic compared to new single crystal material such as PMN32 is very critical in the selection of the best material
Improved Performance of the Piezoelectric Monomorph with Perpendicular Electrode Connections for Sensing and Energy Harvesting  [PDF]
Ming Ma,Zhenrong Li,Xiaoyong Wei,Zhuo Xu,Xi Yao
Smart Materials Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/957460
Abstract: Piezoelectric monomorph, which has only one element, is a potential structure for piezoelectric applications in some extreme conditions. But as the restriction of the strain neutral layer, the traditional parallel electrode connection is not effective for sensing and energy harvesting. In this paper, perpendicular electrode connections were designed to utilize the nonuniform shear piezoelectric effect in the cross section of the monomorph, which made the monomorph avoid the restriction of the strain neutral layer. The PZT5 ceramic monomorph was preliminarily studied in this experiment. By comparing seven forms of perpendicular electrode connections with the traditional parallel electrode connection, the whole superposed perpendicular electrode connection is considered as the optimal output way for the monomorph. It can produce 13?V peak-to-peak (pk-pk) voltage in open circuit and 14.56?μW maximum power with the matching resistance, which are much more than the parallel electrode connection 0.78?V and 0.14?μW. 1. Introduction Piezoelectric cantilever is widely used in the piezoelectric device for sensing and energy harvesting [1–6]. At room temperature and ambient pressure, unimorph and bimorph, which utilize the lateral extensional piezoelectric effect, are considered as a promising solution for sensing and energy harvesting [7, 8]. But when both of the above composite structures are used under the relative tough environment, such as high temperature and high pressure or low temperature and low pressure, the stability and performance of the device will be lower as the thermal-oxidative degradation and the low temperature brittleness of the bonding materials between different components. Even in the normal situation, the internal stresses and the permanent strain in the bonding layer will lead to the rapid deterioration of the device after long time using [9]. As for the simplest transducer that has only one piezoelectric component, the piezoelectric monomorph avoids the bonding issues and is considered as the only solution in the extreme conditions. But the existence of the strain neutral layer, which is in the middle of the thickness of the piezoelectric element, neutralizes the positive and negative induced charges [10]. As a result, with the traditional parallel electrode connection, the monomorph is not effective in the piezoelectric applications. In order to improve the performance of the monomorph, many studies have been focused on the nonuniform polarization inside the piezoelectric materials. Based on the nonuniform distribution of the electric
Multi-Direction Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Techniques  [PDF]
Chunhua Sun, Guangqing Shang
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.79003
Abstract: With the development of portable and self-powering electronic devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) and wireless sensor networks, research on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques has been paid more and more attention. To enhance the ambient adaptability and improve the generating efficiency, the multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques turns to be a research hotspot. The current status of the multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques was firstly reviewed. The characteristics of existed multi-directional piezoelectric harvester were then analyzed. An improved structure of multi-directional piezoelectric harvester was finally proposed. The multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester has a good prospect in miniaturization, more sensitive to vibration directions and better energy efficiency.
Preliminary Study of Optimum Piezoelectric Cross-Ply Composites for Energy Harvesting  [PDF]
David N. Betts,H. Alicia Kim,Christopher R. Bowen
Smart Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/621364
Abstract: Energy harvesting devices based on a piezoelectric material attached to asymmetric bistable laminate plates have been shown to exhibit high levels of power extraction over a wide range of frequencies. This paper optimizes for the design of bistable composites combined with piezoelectrics for energy harvesting applications. The electrical energy generated during state-change, or “snap-through,” is maximized through variation in ply thicknesses and rectangular laminate edge lengths. The design is constrained by a bistability constraint and limits on both the magnitude of deflection and the force required for the reversible actuation. Optimum solutions are obtained for differing numbers of plies and the numerical investigation results are discussed. 1. Introduction Energy harvesting which converts ambient mechanical vibrations into electrical energy is an area of considerable research interest and has received extensive attention in the past decade. A variety of methods have been considered including inductive, capacitive, and piezoelectric materials [1–3]. In many cases harvesting devices have been designed to operate at resonance to optimize the power generation, for example, simple linear cantilever beam configurations. However, ambient vibrations generally exhibit multiple time-dependent frequencies which can include components at relatively low frequencies. This can make typical linear systems inefficient or unsuitable; particularly if the resonant frequency of the device is higher than the frequency range of the vibrations it is attempting to harvest. In order to improve the efficiency of vibrational energy harvesters, recent work has focused on exploiting nonlinearity for broadband energy harvesting. Encouraging results [2] have been obtained using nonlinear or bistable cantilevered beams. Stanton et al. [2] modeled and experimentally validated a non-linear energy harvester using a piezoelectric cantilever. An end magnet on the oscillating cantilever interacts with oppositely poled stationary magnets, which induces softening or hardening into the system and allows the resonance frequency to be tuned. This technique was shown to outperform linear systems when excited by varying frequencies. However, such a system would require an obtrusive arrangement of external magnets and could generate unwanted electromagnetic fields. An alternative method has been recently found where a piezoelectric element is attached to bistable laminate plates with 2 plies and a total ( ) layup of to induce large amplitude oscillations [3]. Such harvesting structures have
Energy Harvesting Process Modelling of an Aeronautical Structural Health Monitoring System Using a Bond-Graph Approach
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.aerospace.20120105.03
Abstract: Energy Harvesting is a promising solution for powering Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems since various mechanical energy sources are generated by aircraft. Today, the main technique to harvest energy consists of using a specific conversion device to provide power to the SHM system. In this paper however, a novel technique to obtain a self-powered SHM system for aeronautical structures is proposed. This SHM system aims to have a double functionality: it will carry out classical SHM tasks using piezoelectric transducers bonded onto the aircraft structure and will also be fully autonomous since the same transducers will convert the mechanical vibrations of the structure into electrical power. Using a bonded piezoelectric transducer to harvest energy will also bring wideband frequency energy harvesting capability. This autonomous system using a unique transducer being particularly innovative, the objective of this paper is to provide a complete Bond Graph model of the energy harvesting process in order to allow the optimisation of its performances. This approach is well-suited to monitor the power and energy transfer carried out during the process since it takes into account the interaction between multiphysics systems, here the electrical and mechanical domains in terms of power and energy variables. Consequently, each part of the energy harvesting, i.e. the mechanical vibration of the host structure, the vibration within the SHM energy harvester volume, the piezoelectric electromechanical conversion and the terminal electric load have been modelled analytically using this Bond Graph approach. Then, each submodel has been verified with a baseline Finite Element model. Good agreements have been found and it has been possible to carry out an estimation of the power harvested by the SHM energy harvester for a given mechanical excitation using this innovative complete analytical Bond Graph model.
Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric transducer and non-controlled rectifiers circuits
Motter, Daniel;Lavarda, Jairo Vinícius;Dias, Felipe Aguiar;Silva, Samuel da;
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-58782012000500006
Abstract: vibration energy harvesting with piezoelectric materials is of practical interest because of the demand for wireless sensing devices and low-power portable electronics without external power supply. for practical use of vibration energy harvester with piezoelectric materials, it is necessary to process the alternating current (ac) by using different rectifiers' circuits in order to charge batteries with direct current (dc) or to feed electronic devices. unfortunately, most of the models used focused on simplifying the energy harvesting circuit into a simple resistive load. in the real-world applications, the energy harvesting external circuit is more complex than a simple load resistance. in this sense, the goal of the present paper is to describe a comprehensive strategy for power harvesting device to estimate the output power provided by a cantilever beam with the electrodes of the piezoceramic layers connected to a standard rectifier circuit. the true electrical components were considered in the full-wave rectifier circuit with four diodes in bridge. a very simple and comprehensive description for choosing the capacitance and resistance loads is provided. in order to illustrate the results, numerical simulations and experimental verifications are also performed to ensure the accuracy. all tests and results are described and detailed using matlab, the simpowersystem toolbox of the simulink and an experimental setup.
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