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Contingencies for Intercultural Dialogue in Virtual Space: An Empirical Research on the Role of Internet in Fostering Intercultural Competences from the Perspective of Migrant Youth
Wang, Yafang
Social Work and Society , 2007,
Abstract: Against the background of the emerging multicultural migration society, acquisition of intercultural competences is getting vitally important for youngsters to actively and effectively engage with intercultural dialogue in a co-existent life context. Contingencies for such intercultural dialogue and to foster intercultural competences of youngsters are opened in virtual space when youth with different ethnic, social and cultural background go online. However, differences in Internet use and competences acquisition as “digital inequality” also exist among youth with different socio-cultural background. This article reports on a quantitative survey of 300 Turkish migrant youth in Germany as empirical sample about how Internet use generally fosters their intercultural competences, what differences exist among them and which indicators can explain the differences. Preliminary findings show that the contingencies of Internet in fostering intercultural competences are still not much employed and realised by Turkish migrant youth. Four online groups connected with bonding, bridging, both (bonding and bridging) and none socio-cultural networks are found out based on the cluster analysis with SPSS. These different networks, from the perspective of social cultural capital, can explain the differences concerning development of intercultural competences among them. It is indicated in this research that many Turkish migrant youth still lack recognition and capabilities to construct their intercultural social networks or relations through using Internet and further to employ the relations as intercultural social capital or social support in their life context. This therefore poses a critical implication for youth work to help migrant youth construct and reconstruct their socio-cultural networks through using Internet so as to extend social support for competences acquisition.
Cultural Sensitivity of Japanese Nurses: Exploring Clinical Application of the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale  [PDF]
Tomiko Toda, Mitsue Maru
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.89048
Abstract: Unlike Western countries, Asian countries have a brief history of caring for patients with various cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Healthcare professionals face difficulty in providing care to foreign patients. Presumably, those with higher cultural sensitivity possess higher cultural competency, and cultural indicators are associated with personal factors, such as interest in or learning experience of foreign languages. We examined correlations between Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) and Cultural Competence in Nursing Scale (CCNS) scores in Japanese nurses and discussed implications of our findings in increasing cultural sensitivity in countries with limited exposure to foreign culture. A questionnaire survey on ISS, CCNS, and personal factors was conducted among 156 nurses. Correlations among the two scales and personal factors were analyzed. Total ISS scores were comparable with previously reported scores. ISS and CCNS scores were moderately correlated. ISS subscale scores were moderately correlated with the learning experience of foreign languages. Nurses most commonly learned English; most foreign patients were Chinese. Experiences of providing care to foreign patients were not related to cultural sensitivity. The lowest ISS score was obtained in “interaction confidence” subscale. Languages used by foreign patients did not match languages that nurses had interest in or had learned; this may contribute to their low confidence in interacting with foreigners. Nurses in a country with limited exposure to different cultures need educational intervention for providing care to foreigners regardless of their cultural experiences. ISS may be useful to identify nurses who need further education to foster confidence while interacting with foreigners.
Investigating the Cognition Behind the Intercultural Interactions of Four Japanese Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
WALKER, Natasha
Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies , 2005,
Abstract: The quality of teachers Edaily social and intellectual interactions is influenced by effective communication and interpersonal skills. Moreover, when considering the relationships between Japanese and non-Japanese teachers who work together, the quality of their relationships may need to be assessed in terms of their willingness to communicate with persons from different cultures, and the ability to do so while respecting cultural differences. This paper examines these two issues in the cognition of four Japanese teachers at a senior high school in Japan. The principles for communicating with people from other cultures are first defined in terms of cultural fluency and the Willingness to Communicate (WTC), which two determinants of successful intercultural communication. Repertory grids were used to elicit teachers Eperceptions of effective intercultural communicators, and they used concept maps share their understanding of intercultural communication. Conversations with the four Japanese teachers revealed that they do not see cultural fluency as a special skill but as a combination of experience and insight gained from intercultural interactions. The consensus among the four teachers is that it is natural for them to use interpersonal skills in communicating with people from different cultures because they are interacting with other individuals. The conclusion to this investigation was that the four teachers realise that communication with non-Japanese colleagues requires a purpose beyond the practice of language skills. However, while they understand that intercultural communication requires effective interpersonal skills, they also believe that good language skills will give them the confidence to communicate in English.
Intercultural Competence in the Context of Youth Non-Governmental Organisations’ International Activities Kultūrin kompetencija jaunimo nevyriausybini organizacij tarptautin s veiklos kontekste  [cached]
Alvyd? Palaimait?,Asta Radzevi?ien?
Science – Future of Lithuania , 2009, DOI: 10.3846/151
Abstract: Increasingly growing necessity for international cooperation of Lithuanian youth non-governmental organization is analyzed in the article. The appropriateness of intercultural competence development for enhancing international activities of Youth non-governmental organization is examined. The results of empirical survey, which confirm the hypothesis that the lack of intercultural competence is the main barrier for international cooperation activities of youth non-governmental organizations, are presented. According to the theory and survey results, authors suggest the list of the main intercultural competences, which could become a core of human resource development in order to enhance international activities of non-governmental youth organizations. Article in Lithuanian Straipsnyje nagrin jamos kultūrin s kompetencijos ugdymo teorijos taikymo galimyb s jaunimo organizacij tarptautiniam bendradarbiavimui tobulinti. Pateikiamas jaunimo nevyriausybini organizacij personalo kompetencij ugdymo poreiki ir galimybi tyrimas. Remiantis teorijos analize ir empirinio tyrimo rezultatais, sudarytas pagrindini kompetencijos element , reikaling siekiant pl toti jaunimo organizacij tarptautin veikl , s ra as. Straipsnis lietuvi kalba
Does the Hybridizing of Intercultural Potential Facilitate Efficient Technology Transfer? An Empirical Study on Japanese Manufacturing Subsidiaries in Vietnam  [cached]
Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen,Atsushi Aoyama
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n11p26
Abstract: This study investigates the management similarities, management compatibilities, and practical approaches synergizing the intercultural potential to facilitate efficient technology transfer. It utilizes Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, with Abo’s theoretical management system and Adler’s intercultural synergy framework, to conduct qualitative data collection through in-depth interviews, focus groups, and observations on at 13 Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in Vietnam. The study finds that five essential factors occurring in technology transfer?frequent interaction, training, team-based work, quality practice, and managerial commitment?can properly integrate the similarities and complementary potential of Vietnamese and Japanese management practice. This study proposes a working framework focusing on directions of determining each culture’s combinable management perspectives, ways of synergizing them, and the possibilities for intercultural synergies to promote technology transfer performance in culturally different contexts. It is suggested that hybrid managerial practices represent not only convergent management styles but also intellectual strategies for exploiting home and host advantages in efficient technology transfer, thus creating the critical foundation of an organizational culture.
A Comparison of Clothing Styles and Values of Korean and Japanese Youth Subcultures  [cached]
Judy Park
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/975
Abstract: Korea and Japan are two countries in Asia with a long shared history and what seem from afar to be similar values, such as modesty, filial piety and diligence. However, a more in-depth look into the two countries shows that Korean and Japanese people in fact have different minds and values. Both countries have five to six established youth subcultures in the 2000s that reflect Korean and Japanese society, and the pressures, values and lifestyles of youths. The aim of this study was to compare the youth subcultures of Korea and Japan, focusing on their clothing styles, and interpret why the differences in styles exist, using aspects of their respective social circumstances, status of youths, and traditional values as indexes, and to ultimately help deepen understanding of the relationship between clothes and culture, youths today, and the issues and trends that most affect youths in Korea and Japan. Key words: Korea; Japan; Youth; Subculture; Style; 2000s Resumé: La Corée et le Japon sont deux pays en Asie, avec une longue histoire commune et qui semblent avoir des valeurs similaires, telles que la modestie, la piété filiale et la diligence. Cependant, un regard plus en profondeur sur les deux pays montre que les Coréens et les Japonais ont en fait des esprits et des valeurs différents. Les deux pays ont de cinq à six sous-cultures établies des jeunes dans les années 2000 qui reflètent la société, les pressions, les valeurs et les modes de vie des jeunes coréens et japonais. Le but de cette étude était de comparer les sous-cultures des jeunes en Corée et au Japon, en se concentrant sur leurs styles vestimentaires, et interpréter pourquoi il existe des différences dans les style, du point de vue de leurs conditions sociales respectives, du statut des jeunes, et des valeurs traditionnelles, afin d'approfondir la compréhension de la relation entre les vêtements et la culture, les jeunes d'aujourd'hui, les enjeux et les tendances qui affectent le plus les jeunes en Corée et au Japon. Mots-clés: Corée; Japon; Jeunes; Sous-Culture; Style; 2000s
Internet Rumors and Intercultural Ethics--A Case Study of Panic-stricken Rush for Salt in China and Iodine Pill in America After Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami
Xiaochi ZHANG
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320120402.2018
Abstract: Internet is a channel of intercultural communication and also a communicative platform. At the same time, Internet rumor always causes serious damage and influences intercultural communication for different people from different countries. The author takes the cases “panicstricken rush for salt in China and iodine pill in America after Japanese Earthquakes and tsunami for example and analyses the causes of the Internet rumors, and discusses that some basic concepts of intercultural ethnics, so as to protect people from different rumors and to keeps a good channel of intercultural communication on Internet. The research indicates that it is important requirements for different people with different cultural background should have intercultural ethics during their communicating with the other people on Internet, and also basic condition for people to get rid of Internet rumors. Key words: Intercultural ethics; Intercultural communication; Intercultural literacy; Internet Rumor
Why Freeter and NEET are Misunderstood: Recognizing the New Precarious Conditions of Japanese Youth
Inui, Akio
Social Work and Society , 2005,
Abstract: In developed countries, the transition from school to work has radically changed over the past two decades. It has become prolonged, complicated and individualized (Bynner et al., 1997; Walther et al., 2004). Young people used to transition directly from school to stable employment, or with a very short unemployed period. In many European countries, this situation has been changing since the eighties: overall youth unemployment has increased, and many young people experience long periods of unemployment, government training schemes and part-time or temporary jobs. In Japan, this change has taken a decade later to appear, becoming prevalent by the late nineties (Inui, 2003). The transiting process has become not only precarious for young people, but also difficult for society to precisely understand the risks and problems. Traditionally, we have been able to recognize young people's situation by a simple category: in education, employed, in training or unemployed. However, these categories no longer accurately represent young people's state. In Japan, most young people used to move from school directly to full-time employment through the new graduate recruitment system (Inui, 1993). Therefore, in official statistics such as the School Basic Survey, 'employed' includes only those who are in regular employment, while those who are in part-time or temporary work are covered by the categories 'jobless' and 'others'. However, with the increase in non-full-time jobs in the nineties, these categories have become less useful for describing the actual employment conditions of young people. Indeed, this is why, in the late of nineties, the Japanese Ministry of Education changed the category name from 'jobless' to 'others'.
An Empirical Study of Contrasting IoT with IT: Evidences of Differences Drawn from Japanese Experiences  [PDF]
Fumio Kodama
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.81003
Abstract: By contrasting IoT (Internet of Things) with IT (Information Technology), various evidences of the difference between them are discovered by our empirical and case studies. For empirical evidence, a comparison is made between the personal computer as representing a case of IT and the automobiles as representing a case of the future IoT, since the self-driving of cars is discussed quite frequently nowadays. Based on their patenting behavior, the degree of modularization is measured, and effects of digitalization on modularization are found out to differ between PC and automobile industries. Similar modularity analysis is employed to sub-module suppliers, and they are found out to be integrative rather than modularly structured, because analogue technologies are essential at the level of sub-module supplying. Through our modularity analyses, it becomes clear that a digitalization brings about a modularization, and will eventually bring an IoT evolution. In order to illustrate the evolutionary process from digitalization to internetworking via modularization, we will investigate a chronology of the machine tool development in Japan ever since 1975. In order to illustrate the evolutionary process of becoming interconnected, we will make a study on a construction machinery manufacturer, i.e. how a manufacturer can go downstream into a service innovation. These case studies will show clearly that the process of upgrading of ITs into an IoT evolution is incremental by its nature and is additive in its essence, i.e. the value is added
Jo?o Valente-dos-Santos,Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva,Vítor Severino,Jo?o Duarte
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature, body mass, 7x34.2-m sprint protocol (25-s active recovery), 20-m multi-stage continuous shuttle endurance run and counter-movement jump (CMJ) without the use of the arms were measured. Fat-free mass (FFM) was determined by age and gender- specific formulas. Developmental changes in total sprint time across ages were predicted using multilevel modeling. Corresponding measurements were performed on an independent cross-sectional subsample of 52 youth soccer players 11-17 years to evaluate the predictive model. CA, CA2, maturational status (SA-CA), body size (mass and stature), FFM, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume training significantly improved the statistical fit of the RSA multilevel model. In 'late' maturing athletes, the best model for predicting change in RSA was expressed by the following equation: 86.54 - 2.87 x CA + 0.05 x CA2 - 0.25 x FFM + 0.15 x body mass + 0.05 x stature - 0.05 x aerobic endurance - 0.09 x lower limb explosive strength - 0.01 x annual volume training. The best fitting models for players who were 'on time' and 'early' maturing were identical to the best model for late maturing players, less 0.64 seconds and 1.74 seconds, respectively. Multilevel modeling provided performance curves that permitted the prediction of individual RSA performance across adolescent years in regional level soccer players
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