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The Relationship between College Students’ Childhood Abuse and Parental Rearing Patterns

周良凯, 陶新华, 傅鹃花
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/AP.2015.54037
探讨儿童期虐待的影响因素,以及儿童虐待和父母教养方式之间的关系,为减少不适宜的父母教养方式的影响和儿童虐待提供依据。采用童年期创伤问卷(CTQ-SF)、父母教养方式问卷(EMBU)对某大学大一大二年级545名学生进行调查。结果显示男生躯体受虐,性受虐,情感忽视、躯体忽视状况较女生多(t = 3.02, 2.70, 5.11, 4.33, p均 < 0.01);非独生子女比独生子女在儿童期虐待各个因子上都要显著;父母文化水平高是儿童虐待的保护性因素。父母惩罚严厉、过分干涉、拒绝否认与儿童虐待都呈正相关(r = 0.146~0.506, p < 0.05);父母情感温暖理解与情感虐待、躯体虐待、情感忽视、躯体忽视呈负相关(r = ?0.623~?0.104, p < 0.05)。说明家庭中多种因素可能导致儿童虐待,父母教养方式是儿童期虐待的重要影响因素。
The paper was aimed to explore the influencing factors of childhood abuse and the relationship between childhood abuse and parenting rearing patterns, and to provide the basis for reducing the effects of inappropriate parenting and child abuse. 545 college students from grade 1 to 2 were as-sessed with CTQ-SF and EMBU. The results showed that the scores of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect of schoolboys were higher than schoolgirls (t = 3.02, 2.70, 5.11, 4.33, all p < 0.01); all kinds of childhood abuse were severer in the one-child family; and the high level of education of parents was the protective factor for child abuse. Parental punishment, excessive interference and refusing denial were positively associated with child abuse (r = 0.146 - 0.506, p < 0.05); and parental emotional warmth and understanding were negatively correlated with emotional abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect (r = ?0.623 - ?0.104, p < 0.05). Many factors cause maltreatment in childhood. Rearing patterns are important factors in-fluencing maltreatment in childhood.
The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents
Anbo Yang
Interpersona : An International Journal on Personal Relationships , 2011,
Abstract: In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998), and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965). The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.
Perceived Parental Overprotection and Separation Anxiety: Does Specific Parental Rearing Serve as Specific Risk Factor  [cached]
Sakineh - Mofrad,Rohani - Abdollah,Bahaman Abu Samah
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n11p109
Abstract: The present study was designed to explore the role of perceived parental rearing style in Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). We examined the association between perceived parental overprotection and rejection rearing style with children’s SAD symptoms. The study was conducted with a normal sample of first grade school children. Findings indicate significant association between parental overprotection and SAD symptoms, means those children with SAD symptom perceived their mother as high overprotective than others. Also, we discovered parental rejection merely was not significant predictor, but it could modify the effect of parental overprotection.
Parental socialization and values: a study with teenagers / Socializa o parental e valores: um estudo com adolescentes  [cached]
Raquel Moraes,Cleonice Camino,Joselí B. da Costa,Leoncio Camino
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2007,
Abstract: This study investigates the relations between the perception of parental practices of socialization and the teenager's values. Two thousand and four (2.004) teenagers of both sexes, from public and private schools aged between 10 and 18 were contacted. Two questionnaires were used: the Teenage Parental Socialization Scale and the Questionnaire of Psychosocial Values. The results reveal that the teenagers' perceptions of parental socialization are organized in three dimensions: Acceptance, Control and Carelessness. They also show that the values are organized in four systems: Materialist, Post-materialist, Hedonic and Religious. Positive and negative relations were found among parental socialization practices and the teenager's values, which allow us to suppose that socialization in a family context reflects in the process of constructing the values of teenagers.
Parental Child Rearing Style and Students Dishonest Behaviour
U.E. Ajake,A.J. Isangediahi,N.N. Bisong
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The study was aimed at determining the influence of child rearing styles on the manifestation of dishonest behaviour among senior secondary school students in Southern Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of 600 senior secondary III students (300 males and 300 females) were used for the study. The subjects ranged from 12 years of age to 21 years. The Child Rearing Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers was used for data collection. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics was used in testing the study hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the data analysis showed that child rearing style has a significant influence on the three aspects of dishonest behaviour namely lying, stealing and truancy. Students reared with autocratic and laissez-faire rearing styles manifested greater degree of dishonest behaviours than those from democratic homes. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that parents should adopt more of the democratic child rearing style than either autocratic or laissez-faire rearing style in the upbringing of their sons and daughters.
The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi
Katrina Grech, Liam Maung, Andrew F Read
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-130
Abstract: The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory reared An. stephensi were tested.Parental rearing conditions did not influence the time taken for offspring to emerge, or their size or survival as adults. However, parental effects were influential in determining the fecundity of daughters. Counter-intuitively, daughters of parents reared in low food conditions produced larger egg clutches than daughters of parents reared in high food conditions. Offspring reared in low food conditions took larger blood meals if their parents had also experienced a low food environment.So far as we are aware, this is the first evidence of parental effects on progeny in Anopheles.The reproductive success of an individual is dependent on genetic background, environmental conditions, and interactions between these. One factor which is increasingly recognized to have a profound impact on individual success is the environmental conditions experienced by their parents [1-4] Parental effects have been demonstrated in a wide range of taxa [e.g. [5-18]]. Some of these effects arise from environmental constraints where, for instance, nutrient deprivation in mothers results in less well-provisioned and hence smaller offspring. Parental effects can also be adaptive if parents can perceive cues in their environment and adjust per offspring investment so as to optimize offspring fitness. For instance, in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, mothers kept in poor conditions alter offspring size, survival, fecundity or resistance to parasites [e.g. [16,19,20]]. Here, mothers in poor environments increase per offspring investment in the few offspring they can produce. Thus, there are various routes by which maternal effects can affect important offspring traits such as development time, survival and fecundity.Anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are medically important vectors, responsible for the transmission of many disease
Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms  [cached]
Schuppert H,Albers Casper J,Minderaa Ruud B,Emmelkamp Paul MG
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-29
Abstract: Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101) and a healthy control group (N = 44). Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders) were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection) and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD patients.
The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study
Katja Petrowski, Hendrik Berth, Silke Schmidt, J?rg Schumacher, Andreas Hinz, Elmar Br?hler
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-9-17
Abstract: This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948) in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92). For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) was filled out by the participants.The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection) correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified.The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.The impact of parental rearing behavior on child development has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. Perceived parental rearing practices were emphasized as a significant etiological factor in a vulnerability model of psychopathology [1] and connected to a child's general psycho-social development as well as to the social problems of children [2]. Subjects who reported having had supportive, non-rejecting and non-overinvolved parents showed higher psychological adjustment, less social alienation and more life satisfaction [3,2]. However, age and gender moderated these effects as older individuals idealized their parents' child rearing behavior more than younger ones did [4]. On the whole, male subjects reported a more rejecting parental rearing behavior than their female counterparts did [5].In clinical research and in retrospective studies most of the empirical result
Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group  [cached]
Mojgan Karahmadi
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects). The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects) from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them. RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns. KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.
No Aggression, Only Teasing: The Pragmatics of Teasing and Banter
Marta Dynel
Lodz Papers in Pragmatics , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10016-008-0001-7
Abstract: A bone of contention among researchers is whether the primary function of humour is the expression of aggression against the hearer or the promotion of solidarity between the interlocutors. It is commonly averred that teasing boasts a dichotomous nature, i.e. malignant and benevolent. The former coincides with the potential for criticising, mocking and ostracising the interlocutor, whereas the latter accounts for playfulness and bonding capacity. The overriding goal of the paper is to expound the rapport-building function, which is here postulated to be inherent to teasing. First and foremost, I will determine the scope of interest differentiating between putdown humour and teases, which may assume the form of retorts and develop into multi-turn teases, i.e. banter. Subtypes of teasing will be discussed with a view to proving that it is inherently devoid of genuine aggressiveness. The underlying premise is that teases, even if ostensibly aggressive, i.e. face-threatening, are geared towards solidarity, in conformity with the framework of politeness, including mock impoliteness, holding between intimates. Also, teases fulfil a few subordinate functions such as defunctionalisation or mitigation of face-threatening messages they may carry.
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