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Anthropogenization in Georgia
Nana M. Berdzenishvili
European Researcher , 2012,
Abstract: The analysis of towns and natural environment interection shows that creating the most convenient living conditions for the public depends on correct and systematic actions, concerning protection and restoration of all natural components, including clean air preservation, cities planting, water and land resources protection. It should be noted that recultivation activities are unsatisfactory and are held on small scale. Despite there is little farmland per head in Georgia, 3000 hectares of agricultural land, more than half of which is allocated for plough lands and perennial trees is lost due to urbanization and industrialization.
Similarity theory based on the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale  [PDF]
Andrey A. Grachev,Edgar L Andreas,Christopher W. Fairall,Peter S. Guest,P. Ola G. Persson
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2488
Abstract: Local similarity theory is suggested based on the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy instead the turbulent fluxes used in the traditional Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Based on dimensional analysis (Pi theorem), it is shown that any properly scaled statistics of the small-scale turbulence are universal functions of a stability parameter defined as the ratio of a reference height z and the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale which in the limit of z-less stratification is linearly proportional to the Obukhov length scale. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence made at five levels on a 20-m tower over the Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to examine the behaviour of different similarity functions in the stable boundary layer. It is found that in the framework of this approach the non-dimensional turbulent viscosity is equal to the gradient Richardson number whereas the non-dimensional turbulent thermal diffusivity is equal to the flux Richardson number. These results are a consequence of the approximate local balance between production of turbulence by the mean flow shear and viscous dissipation. The turbulence framework based on the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy may have practical advantages for estimating turbulence when the fluxes are not directly available.
Puzzles of State Transformation: The Cases of Armenia and Georgia  [cached]
Dr. Nicole Gallina
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2010,
Abstract: The problems of weak state structures, including state territoriality, in the South Caucasus has highly influenced political developments and the building of a democratic state. This paper explains the difficulty of recovering statehood in the cases of Armenia and Georgia, both in the context of post–Soviet state transformation and post–conflict state-rebuilding. It argues that recovering statehood in the South Caucasus meant at once maintaining the status quo within the state structures and managing the highly volatile political and ethnic relations (culminating in armed conflict). In the cases of conflict, elite management impeded conflict solution. In this context, this paper finds that elite power slowed the construction of a democratic and effective state. In particular, elite fragmentation has led to serious impediments for state development and the consolidation of territoriality. In sum, elite-led state development and conflict management hindered the successful consolidation of state territoriality.
Russia, Georgia and the Responsibility to Protect  [cached]
Gareth Evans
Amsterdam Law Forum , 2009,
Abstract: In this article, Gareth Evans argues that the Russian claim that the intervention in Georgia was justified by reference to ‘Responsibility to Protect’ principles is superficial. Per Evans – who was instrumental in drafting the Responsibility to Protect Report – its doctrine does not provide a basis for the protection of citizens outside of one’s own borders. According to Evans, even if this aspect were overlooked, the threat to the South Ossetian population was nonetheless not of a sufficient nature and scale to render military force necessary.
Nokalakevi, Georgia: potential in ruins  [cached]
Kathryn Grant,Chris Russel
Archaeology International , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1114
Abstract: Global attention has focused on Georgia as a result of the recent political and military conflict. However, the country also has a rich archaeological heritage which is little known in the West. The Anglo-Georgian Expedition to Nokalakevi (AGEN), set up in 2000, aims to explore the archaeology of a major site that was occupied from at least the 8th century BC to recent times. It also offers training to Georgian archaeologists and international students and outreach work to the local community. In this article two British members of AGEN describe the aims of the project and some of the results of recent field seasons.
Evaluation on Input-output Efficiency of Land Consolidation Project Based on DEA --- A Case Study of Land Consolidation Project in Chongyang County, Hubei Province  [cached]
Zhijie Dong,Ruiping Ran
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n2p72
Abstract: This article studies four land consolidation projects in four towns of Chongyang County, Hubei Province, establishes system indexes for evaluation on input and output of land consolidation projects in all the four towns and employs DEA method to make an analysis of the relative efficiency of the projects in order to make an analysis of the actual efficiency of land consolidation, decide whether land consolidation is highly effective and point out a direction of improvement for higher land consolidation efficiency in the future. The result shows that the land consolidation in Qingshan Town and Lukou Town is ineffective and the land consolidation in Shaping Town and Baini Town is effective, with an average efficiency of 0.77. It proves that the overall efficiency of land consolidation in the four towns is at an upper-and-middle stream. Inefficiency is mainly manifested in cost of construction of a project, original equipment cost, other costs and redundancy of unpredictable costs, while increment of land use ratio, quantity of employment added per unit investment, rate of coverage of newly added green vegetation, newly added annual pure economic interests and yield rate of static investment have too low output. In order to enhance the efficiency of land consolidation, it is necessary to arrange all sorts of input in a reasonable way and pay enough attention to the output.
Land Consolidation Model in the County of Vara din
Dragutin Vincek,Miljenko Ernoi?
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2009,
Abstract: During the long period of time, Croatian agriculture was characterized by double structure of ownership. In the past, in Socialism, the ownership of agricultural land in Croatia and development investments in agriculture were directed toward a small number of large agricultural companies in social ownership, while small family farms were marginalized, just as it was the case in the majority of former socialist countries. In the County of Vara din there are 33,415 family farms which own 52,723.35 ha of agricultural land with an average size of a parcel of 0.336 ha. Such fragmentation of land cannot guarantee profitable agricultural production, so one of the priorities of agricultural policy of the County of Vara din is land consolidation. The County of Vara din subsidizes consolidation of existing lots with 480 Euros/ha, and if the total size of the land that belongs to a family farm enlarges, with 345 Euros/ha. Between 2003 and 2007 a total of 683 farmers received subsidies. A recipient of the subsidy on average increased his farm by 1.2 ha. The County of Vara din is going to continue such stimulation of consolidation, but without significant interference of the state the process of consolidation is not going to intensify. The state should participate more considerably because it is necessary to remove the causes of unfavorable land structure used by family farms, such as unlimited division of plots of agricultural land as a consequence of inheritance procedures or other forms of dissolution of joint ownership. Processes opposed to consolidation of the agricultural land should also be prevented.
Globalization and National Competitiveness of Georgia  [cached]
Dr. George Ivaniashvili-Orbeliani
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2009,
Abstract: Despite the fact that a national competitiveness is substantially linked to globalization, only a few studies have linked these two subjects from the perspective of developing countries, which presents complex challenges to policy makers and researchers. I argue that Porter's Diamond Model is basically relevant for economically strong industrialized countries and is less applicable for developing economies. The contention is that driving forces of globalization (FDI, transnational companies and Bretton Woods Institutes) have different implications on national competitiveness according to internal capacities and external opportunities. The paper makes a critical analysis of existing theoretical aspects of national competitiveness. It also clarifies the framework of National Innovation System, which has been successfully used in OECD countries and more recently is becoming the focus of increased attention from developing nations. Attention is concentrated on defining the aspects of Georgia’s competitiveness, evaluating the country’s economic performance, and suggesting practical recommendations for reforms and development.
Ethnic Mobilization in Post-Soviet Georgia: The Case of the Yezidi-Kurds
David Szakonyi
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to examine the failure of the Yezidi-Kurdish minority to attain a high level of ethnic mobilization in order to protect its political and cultural interests after the fall of the USSR and the creation of an independent Georgia in 1991. This inability has intensified the threat of the complete cultural, religious, and linguistic assimilation of the Yezidi-Kurds into the wider Georgian society, instead of allowing the minority to achieve healthy integration into society and the preservation of its ethnic identity. I argue that the convergence of three sets of factors best explains the present tenuous position of the minority. First, structural changes affected the ability of minority leaders to gather sufficient human and financial resources necessary for mobilization. Secondly, problems in determining a unified identity as well as conflicts between minority elites prevented the consolidation of the ethnic group and limited its organizational capacity. Lastly, Georgian state policies and larger societal trends have subtly contributed to the dismantling of certain core components of the Yezidi-Kurdish ethnic identity., thereby accelerating the process of assimilation. This article concludes with a discussion of the prospects of the Yezidi-Kurdish community in Georgia, arguing that only efforts to reunite the minority and cooperation with existing minority civil society structures will prevent the effective disappearance of the group in this country.
Eco-environmental evaluation and spatial-temporal collocation of regional land consolidation

WANG Ailing,ZHAO Gengxing,WANG Ruiyan,YUAN Xiangming,

应用生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Eco-environmental evaluation and spatial-temporal collocation of land consolidation is the basis of regional land consolidation. Taking Qingzhou County of Shandong Province as an example, this paper established the eco-environmental evaluation index system and evaluation model of land consolidation, based on the systematic analysis of land consolidation characteristics and natural and social conditions of Qingzhou County. The comprehensive score of each evaluation unit was obtained by integrated index evaluation method and GIS techniques, and the spatial- temporal collocation of regional land consolidation was proposed accordingly. The results indicated that in Qingzhou County, the total area of cultivated and un-utilized land was 1 446 km2 , among which, the land consolidation area in near future mainly distributed in the northwest part of plain region, occupying 15. 35% of the total, mid-phase land consolidation area mainly distributed in the northwest and central parts of plain region, occupying 13.58%, land consolidation area in specified future mainly distributed in the north part of plain region, occupying 40. 71%, and non- land consolidation area mainly distributed in hilly region, occupying 30. 36%. These results could provide scientific instruction for the land consolidation planning and implement in Qingzhou County.
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