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Temporal and Spatial Variability of Water Surplus in Ontario, Canada  [PDF]
D. Murray Brown,Humaira Dadfar,David J. Fallow,Robert J. Gordon,John D. Lauzon,Gary W. Parkin
ISRN Soil Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/362895
Abstract: The temporal variability in estimated water surplus in 12 climatic regions of the province of Ontario, Canada, and its spatial distribution throughout most of the province are discussed in this paper. Surplus water is that which results from precipitation that runs off the land surface and that which drains through the soil profile to the water table and through subsurface drainage. A one-dimensional, deterministic model (DRAINMOD) that simulates soil water flow, including plant uptake, evapotranspiration, and freeze/thaw conditions, was used to estimate the water surplus. Simulations were performed using daily climatic data from January 1954 to December 2001 for each region. A reference corn crop and the predominant local soil conditions in each region, with the hydraulic properties for each layer in the soil profile, were used as model inputs. There was considerable year-to-year variability in annual water surplus in all regions caused by both precipitation and soil conditions. It was the least (~150?mm) in three regions and it exceeded 350?mm in another three regions, where winter snowfall is the greatest as a result of these regions being in the lea of one of the Great Lakes. The variability in water surplus generally increased as average water surplus increased. 1. Introduction At the end of most growing seasons in Ontario, soil water has been partially depleted from the plant root zone and deeper through evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from plants. The growing season generally ends by mid-November in southwestern Ontario, by the end of October in the rest of southern Ontario, and by mid-October in northern Ontario as discussed in [1, 2]. As a result, from November to March in southwestern Ontario, from November to mid-April in the rest of southern Ontario, and from mid-October to April in northern Ontario, the soil water is replenished by precipitation and a water surplus occurs, as evaporation is less than precipitation. This surplus water either drains through the soil profile to the water table or through tile drainage lines (referred to collectively as deep drainage (DD)) or runs off directly into surface water (referred to as runoff (RO)), especially in the late winter and spring months as discussed in [3–5]. Large annual variability in soil water necessitates the use of long-term studies to adequately describe seasonal changes in water surplus as discussed in [6]. Since long-term field data are generally not available, modeling studies are necessary as discussed elsewhere [7]. The objective of this paper is to determine
Critical appraisal skills of family physicians in Ontario, Canada
Marshall Godwin, Rachelle Seguin
BMC Medical Education , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-3-10
Abstract: We obtained a random sample of 1000 family physicians in Ontario from the College of Family Physicians of Canada database. These physicians were sent a questionnaire in the mail with follow-up mailings to non-responders at 3 and 8 weeks. The questionnaire was designed to measure knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of critical appraisal skills. Based on the responses to the questions an Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Knowledge Score was determined for each physician.A response rate of 30.2% was achieved. The respondents were younger and more likely to be recent graduates than the population of Ontario Family Physicians as a whole. This was an expected outcome. Just over 50% of respondents were able to answer questions concerning the critical appraisal of methods and the interpretation of results of research articles satisfactorily. The average score on the 12-point EBM Knowledge Scale was 6.4. The younger physicians scored higher than the older physicians, and academic physicians scored higher than community-based physicians. Scores of male and female physicians did not differ.We have shown that in a population of physicians which is younger than the general population of physicians, about 50% have reasonable knowledge regarding the critical appraisal of the methods and the interpretation of results of a research article. In general, younger physicians were more knowledgeable than were older physicians. EBM principles were felt to be important to the practice of medicine by 95% of respondents.The concept we now refer to as evidence-based medicine (EBM) has its roots in the clinical epidemiology group at McMaster University. In the early and mid 1980s Haynes, Guyatt, Sackett, Oxman and others began writing about how to keep up-to-date by effectively reading and using the medical research literature [1-4]. In the 1990's this same group began publishing "User's guides" in the Journal of the American Medical Association about reading and critically appraisin
Public awareness of income-related health inequalities in Ontario, Canada
Ketan Shankardass, Aisha Lofters, Maritt Kirst, Carlos Qui?onez
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-26
Abstract: Data were collected from 2,006 Ontario adults using a telephone survey. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with various statements asserting that there are or are not health inequalities in general and by income in Ontario, including questions pertaining to nine specific conditions for which inequalities have been described in Ontario. A multi-stage process using binary logistic regression determined whether awareness of health inequalities differed between participant subgroups.Almost 73% of this sample of Ontarians agreed with the general premise that not all people are equally healthy in Ontario, but fewer participants were aware of health inequalities between the rich and the poor (53%–64%, depending on the framing of the question). Awareness of income-related inequalities in specific outcomes was considerably lower, ranging from 18% for accidents to 35% for obesity.This is the first province-wide study in Canada, and the first in Ontario, to explore public awareness on health inequalities. Given that political will is shaped by public awareness and opinion, these results suggest that greater awareness may be required to move the health equity agenda forward in Ontario. There is a need for health equity advocates, physicians and researchers to increase the effectiveness of knowledge translation activities for studies that identify and explore health inequalities.
The River Otter Live Capture Program in Ontario, Canada  [cached]
Penak B.,Code T.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 1987,
Abstract: The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) initiated a project to live-trap river otter (Lutra canadensis canadensis) in 1984. This report described the successful trapping, handling, transfer and reintroduction protocol used.
Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010  [cached]
Dang Vica,Jamieson Frances B,Wilson Sarah,Rawte Prasad
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-202
Abstract: Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada. Methods We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant (<1 year) age-specific incidence multiplied by expected vaccine efficacies between 70% and 80%, and assuming only direct protection (no herd effects). Results A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were <6 months. Infants had the highest incidence (3.70/100,000). Case-fatality ratio was 10.7% overall. If we assume that all infant cases would be preventable by vaccination, we would need to vaccinate between 33,784 and 38,610 infants to prevent one case of disease. Conclusions Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.
The Far North Act (2010) Consultative Process: A New Beginning or the Reinforcement of an Unacceptable Relationship in Northern Ontario, Canada?  [PDF]
Holly L. Gardner,Stephen R.J. Tsuji,Daniel D. McCarthy,Graham S. Whitelaw
International Indigenous Policy Journal , 2012,
Abstract: In northern Ontario, Canada, there have been two “negotiated” documents that required consultation between First Nations and the federated government of the land: Treaty No. 9 signed in 1905-1906 (Dominion of Canada, with the concurrence of the Province of Ontario) and Ontario’s Far North Act (2010). Treaty No. 9 has defined the relationship between First Nations and Canada; while, the Far North Act will define the relationship with Ontario. This article evaluated whether the Far North Act marked a new beginning or the reinforcement of an unacceptable relationship, using primary and secondary data analyses. Analyses revealed that the passing of the Far North Act was not a new beginning, but the continuation of an unacceptable relationship.
Woodland caribou and forestry in Northern Ontario, Canada
W. R. Darby,L. S. Duquette
Rangifer , 1986,
Abstract: Expansion of logging in remote Ontario boreal forest requires mitigation of effects on woodland caribou. Three examples of caribou-forestry interaction are reviewed. In two, caribou were apparently displaced from peripheral portions of their winter range by logging. In the third, caribou disappeared when exposed to: logging in a central third of their winter range; increased deer density, and; a probable increase in predation. In all cases there is no evidence of human harvest. The literature plus experience in Ontario suggest the following mitigative techniques: protection of winter concentration areas, significant calving areas and traditional migration routes from logging; directing timber harvest to forest stands of least value to caribou; restricting disturbance to one large clearcut in a peripheral portion of range rather than dispersing it over a large portion as several small clearcuts; modified site preparation and regeneration, and; restricted road access. Research is required on the effect of forestry on caribou with and without mitigation, and on causes for effects observed.
Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada  [PDF]
Michael O. Chaiton,Graham C. Mecredy,Joanna E. Cohen,Melodie L. Tilson
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10127299
Abstract: Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1) whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2) what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.
Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach  [PDF]
Dongmei Chen,Haydi Wong,Paul Belanger,Kieran Moore,Mary Peterson,John Cunningham
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/ijgi4010105
Abstract: Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.
Possible Impacts of Climate Change on Daily Streamflow and Extremes at Local Scale in Ontario, Canada. Part II: Future Projection  [PDF]
Chad Shouquan Cheng, Qian Li, Guilong Li, Heather Auld
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.24037
Abstract: The paper forms the second part of an introduction to possible impacts of climate change on daily streamflow and extremes in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Daily streamflow simulation models developed in the companion paper (Part I) were used to project changes in frequency of future daily streamflow events. To achieve this goal, future climate information (including rainfall) at a local scale is needed. A regression-based downscaling method was employed to downscale eight global climate model (GCM) simulations (scenarios A2 and B1) to selected weather stations for various meteorological variables (except rainfall). Future daily rainfall quantities were projected using daily rainfall simulation models with downscaled future climate information. Following these projections, future daily streamflow volumes can be projected by applying daily streamflow simulation models. The frequency of future daily high-streamflow events in the warm season (May–November) was projected to increase by about 45%-55% late this century from the current condition, on average of eight-GCM A2 projections and four selected river basins. The corresponding increases for future daily low-streamflow events and future daily mean streamflow volume could be about 25%-90% and 10%-20%, respectively. In addition, the return values of annual one-day maximum streamflow volume for various return periods were projected to increase by 20%-40%, 20%-50%, and 30%-80%, respectively for the periods 2001-50, 2026-75, and 2051-2100. Inter-GCM and interscenario uncertainties of future streamflow projections were quantitatively assessed. On average, the projected percentage increases in frequency of future daily high-streamflow events are about 1.4-2.2 times greater than inter-GCM and interscenario uncertainties.
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