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The Implementation of Social Welfare Policy in Taiwan: Regarding Single Parent Families  [cached]
Jing-Houng Kuo,Yung-Yi Tang,Kueiling Chiu
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n3p118
Abstract: Within members of the global village, affluent or poor nations alike, the family structure has undergone a dramatic change. Taiwan is no exception. In the past, the traditional Taiwanese family secures social order by fusing social forces adhesively. However, accompanied with economic development, feminist movement and population immigration, the traditional Taiwanese family structure has undergone a dramatically change. The traditional family has faced colossal challenges; the increased unwedded mothers, sky-high divorce rate, separated family due to parents working in the both side of the Taiwan Strait. All of these contribute towards making the single parent family as a “social fact” in the trend of Taiwan social change. Unlike other countries, the ratio of single parent family with male headed families has been relatively high in Taiwan. A 2001 nationwide survey of 3500 single parent families in Taiwan indicates that the ratio of male headed and female headed single parent families respectively is close to 1:1, and the economic condition has no significant difference. Furthermore, since the remarried rate of parents in the single parent family is low (in 2007 the divorce rate in Taiwan was 2.5/1000, the remarried rate for male was 27.1/1000, for female was 11.2/1000), more than half of surveyed single parent families have lived in such structure more than five years. It shows that the lifestyle of single parent family in Taiwan has become commonplace. Two distinctive characteristics of Taiwanese single parent family are the high ratio of (1) covert single parent family due to a conservative culture regarding separation being better than divorce; (2) three generation family with grandparents, single parent, and children becomes the most significant social support network of single parent family. Follow this line of thinking, Taiwanese social policy of single parent family should be planned to adjust to the special cultural needs of single parent families in Taiwan like single parent family living with grandparents. However, Taiwanese government has not yet implemented such policy and establishes various social aids for eliminating poverty. These unstructured aids have focused generally on single parent family with mother only while most single parent families relied on un-official and non-organizational support. This study has suggested that the government should actively construct comprehensive family-focused policy and support network among single parent families to provide services to reduce their heavy housework and work load and explore differe
Families of distributions and Pfaff systems under duality  [PDF]
Federico Quallbrunn
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.5427/jsing.2015.11g
Abstract: A singular distribution on a non-singular variety $X$ can be defined either by a subsheaf $D$ of the tangent sheaf, or by the zeros of a subsheaf $D^0$ of the sheaf of 1-forms. Although both definitions are equivalent under mild conditions on $D$, they give rise, in general, to non-equivalent notions of flat families. In this work we investigate conditions under which both notions of flat families are equivalent. In the last sections we focus on the case where the distribution is integrable, and we use our results to generalize a theorem of Cukierman and Pereira.
Grandparents Upbringing in Mainland China: The Status and Prospect of Research  [cached]
Ji hui GU,Ding chu WU
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120803.1160
Abstract: This paper prospects the future study of grandparents upbringing by analyzing and summarizing briefly its nearly ten years’ situation in recent mainland China in terms of its concepts and types, causes, pros and cons as well as relevant countermeasures.Key words:Grandparents upbringing;Grandparent caregivers; Grandchildren;Pros and cons;Countermeasures
Care management in nursing under the complexity view
Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann,Dirce Backes,Hanaí Minuzzi
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2008,
Abstract: Bibliographic study which is exploratory has aim the conceptions analyze to nursing care management under the complexity view. The study was made by means of the search in articles, being the search source, the two thematic volumes of the national periodic papers about Nursing. These papers refer to the last three years, and their theme is about Health and Nursing Administration or Management. The 43 articles were found was submitted to an attentive reading und were analyzed according to Bardin, therefore emerging nucleus ideas which are: Care management, Care management versus Nursing management and Nurse’s managerial competences. These categories show that the care management centers in people as complex human beings, in the complexity of the care system, in the enhanced and integrated nursing and health teams, and in the managerial competences as being inherent to the nurses’ professional activities.
Care management in nursing under the complexity view
Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann,Dirce Backes,Hanaí Minuzzi
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: Bibliographic study which is exploratory has aim the conceptions analyze to nursing care management under the complexity view. The study was made by means of the search in articles, being the search source, the two thematic volumes of the national periodic papers about Nursing. These papers refer to the last three years, and their theme is about Health and Nursing Administration or Management. The 43 articles were found was submitted to an attentive reading und were analyzed according to Bardin, therefore emerging nucleus ideas which are: Care management, Care management versus Nursing management and Nurse’s managerial competences. These categories show that the care management centers in people as complex human beings, in the complexity of the care system, in the enhanced and integrated nursing and health teams, and in the managerial competences as being inherent to the nurses’ professional activities.
Relations between Grandparents and Grandchildren in the Context of the Family System  [cached]
Oliver Arránz Becker,Anja Steinbach
Comparative Population Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4232/10.cpos-2012-06en
Abstract: The demographic change which has taken place in recent decades, and in particular the considerable increase in life expectancy, has resulted in intergenerational relationships that are lasting much longer. Despite the increase in people’s median age at first child birth, members of different generations now have the opportunity to live together for periods that are unparalleled in human history. Especially the medical and technical progress has led to grandparents being increasingly capable in both health and cognitive terms at an advanced age that they provide active support for their children and grandchildren in many ways. This article addresses the question to what extent the relationship potentials - also against the background of modernisation processes within society (e.g. increasing demands as to mobility, problems in reconciling family and work) - are transformed into actual support by grandparents for the grandchildren’s generation. The analyses are based on data from the parents of the primary respondents (“anchor persons”) in the German Family Panel (Beziehungs- und Familienpanel - pairfam, 2nd wave 2009/2010, parents’ questionnaire) with a grandchild aged between 8 and 15. The significance of various factors influencing the strength of relationships between grandparents and their grandchildren is empirically examined. Firstly, social-structural characteristics and family-related attitudes on the part of the members of the various generations are considered, and secondly, various family members’ personal and social resources. All in all, it is revealed that grandparent-grandchild relationships are largely independent from personal resources such as employment status, but that they are associated with social resources, that is the relationships between grandparents and parents, as well as with grandparents’ partnership status. Moreover, there are pronounced regional differences (i.e., stronger grandparent-grandchild relations in Eastern Germany) and a positive impact of familialism.
As representa es sociais de conjugalidade entre casais recasados Social representations of conjugality among remarried couples  [cached]
Priscilla de Oliveira Martins Silva,Zeidi Araujo Trindade,Annor da Silva Junior
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2012,
Abstract: O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as representa es sociais (RS) de conjugalidade em casais recasados. Foram realizados 2 grupos focais (1 com mulheres e 1 com homens). Os participantes possuem ao menos um filho no primeiro casamento e residem em bairros considerados de classe média ou média alta. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizada a análise de discurso. Os resultados revelam que a RS da conjugalidade configura-se como um sistema representacional, já que os elementos que a comp em s o considerados objetos sociais, e; que se organiza de maneira diferente para homens e mulheres. Também, observou-se no recasamento: 1) alto grau de complexidade nas rela es familiares; 2) os filhos, na vis o dos pais, lidam bem com a nova dinamica familiar; 3) a rela o conjugal tende a ser mais igualitária; 4) os homens parecem apresentar a necessidade de uma parceria conjugal para a organiza o da vida emocional, familiar e profissional. The present study aims to analyze social representations (SR) of conjugality among remarried couples. Two focus groups were held, one group with women and one group with men. All participants have at least one child from their first marriage and live at a considered middle or high-middle class neighborhood. The data were analyzed by discourse analyze. The results show conjugality SR is organized as a representational system, because the elements, that are articulated in order to form it, are considered social objects. The SR observed is organized differently by men and women. Also, it was observed in remarriage: 1) high complexity degree among family relations; 2) children, on parents point of view, deal with the new family dynamic nicely; 3) tendency of more equal conjugal relations; 4) men seem to need a conjugal partnership to organize their emotional, family and professional life.
The Role of Grandparents in Childcare in Ireland: Towards a Research Agenda  [cached]
Michelle Share,Liz Kerrins
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies , 2009,
Abstract: This paper discusses the role of grandparents in informal childcare in Ireland. It considers how recent demographic change and government policy on childcare have the potential to place greater pressures on the provision of grandparent childcare. It illustrates research literature that has examined the prevalence and intensity of grandparent care, factors influencing such care, and the role and needs of grandparents in childcare. We argue that there are significant gaps in Irish research evidence about the extent of, role and needs of grandparents as childcarers and outline a data and research agenda that builds on previous research in this area.
Conrad's view of revolution/anarchism in under western eyes Conrad's view of revolution/anarchism in under western eyes
Antonio Eduardo de Oliveira
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: It is my main purpose to discuss in this paper three relevant topics concerned with Joseph Conrad's novel Under Western Eyes, namely: the author's view of revolution and anarchism and its relation with his Polish experience; how critical Conrad is of both autocracy and revolution and finally to discuss where in, the novel the writer is sympathetic to revolution. To begin with, let me mention some aspects of Conrad's Polish background. First of all, he was a Pole, born in the Russian-occupied Poland of 1857 as the son of one of the most spirited participants in the Polish National Comittee, and with a profound fear of Russian autocratic power in his blood. Politics, nationalism, the forces of imperialism and rebellion, were the first and deepest parts of his inheritance. Conrad's character was linked to the patriotic and nationalistic ardour of his father's nature, an idealist revolutionary, and to the conservatism of his uncle Tadeuz Bobrowski his guardian during youth. The duality of thought conditioned by Apollo Korzeniowski, the father, and Tadeuz Bobrowski made his character divided all his life long. The political approach in Under Western Eyes exemplifies the writer's duality of thought. In order to write this novel Conrad found uggestions in the writings of Russian novelists, mainly Dostoievsky's Crime and Punishment. Although the book fully justifies this assertion, the writer denies it and even affirmed in a letter to a friend that he had a "Russophobia", and that he did not like the works of the famous Russian writer. It is my main purpose to discuss in this paper three relevant topics concerned with Joseph Conrad's novel Under Western Eyes, namely: the author's view of revolution and anarchism and its relation with his Polish experience; how critical Conrad is of both autocracy and revolution and finally to discuss where in, the novel the writer is sympathetic to revolution. To begin with, let me mention some aspects of Conrad's Polish background. First of all, he was a Pole, born in the Russian-occupied Poland of 1857 as the son of one of the most spirited participants in the Polish National Comittee, and with a profound fear of Russian autocratic power in his blood. Politics, nationalism, the forces of imperialism and rebellion, were the first and deepest parts of his inheritance. Conrad's character was linked to the patriotic and nationalistic ardour of his father's nature, an idealist revolutionary, and to the conservatism of his uncle Tadeuz Bobrowski his guardian during youth. The duality of thought conditioned by Apollo Korzeniowski, t
Anxiety and Depression among Guardian Grandparents: A Proposal for a Psychoeducational Intervention  [PDF]
Cristina Maria de Souza Brito Dias, Celia Maria Souto Maior de Souza Fonseca, Cirlene Francisca Sales da Silva, Emily Schuler, Jhérsyka Evelin Mendes Lins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.713146
Abstract: It is known that raising children is the responsibility of parents. However, several factors of an economic, relational and work have led grandparents to actively participate in the creation of grandchildren. Research has shown that for many grandparents, the fact of raising their grandchildren causes several difficulties to physical and psychological level, among which we highlight increased anxiety and depression. This study therefore aimed to design, implement and evaluate the effects of a psycho-educational intervention aimed at alleviating anxiety and depression of grandparents caring for grandchildren. 55 grandparents with an average age of 64 years participated in this research. They underwent a sociodemographic questionnaire, application BAI and BDI, before and after a psychoeducational intervention, and an interview to evaluate the intervention. This comprised eight sessions held weekly in groups, lasting two and a half hours. After analyzing the results, it can be seen that the grandparents reduced the level of depression and anxiety. This experience led to observe, through appearance, ease and own lines of grandparents; the intervention consisted in beneficial space so that they can better deal with the raising of grandchildren.
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