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 Phyllis Kaburise Per Linguam : A Journal of Language Learning , 2011, DOI: 10.5785/23-1-47 Abstract: Conversation principles, such as those of Grice (1957, 1968, 1975), Austin (1962), Searle (1962, 1969) are formulated to enable interlocutors to interact meaningfully, in a linguistic project. Non-observance and flouting of these principles occur regularly in the verbal behaviours of users of a language, indeed, sophisticated users of a language, sometimes deliberately go against these norms, as stylistic devices in their output. When such non-conformities occur, hearers and readers resort to implicatures, maxims, inferences and their general world knowledge to interpret an utterance. Although the decision to observe some, and not all of the principles during a linguistic encounter, may seem to be taken casually, it is the contention of this paper that such decisions are made deliberately, particularly, by users of a second language. This paper attempts to identify the selection processes involved in the creation of some utterances produced by Ghanaian and Tshivenda second language users of English, using Grice’s verbal interaction maxims. The discussion will focus on the tension between semantic and pragmatic meaning, the factors involved in the creation of linguistic meaning and the role that interaction requirements such as Grice’s conversational maxims and the concept of a New Englishes approach to language play in the creation of some second language utterances.
 Brain. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2011, Abstract: With the advances in Quantum physics and meteorology, science has moved towards more uncertainty and unpredictability (Larsen-Freeman, 2002) [12]. This has resulted in the emergence of Chaos/Complexity Science (Valle, 2000) [20], or Theory (Larsen-Freeman, 1997) [11], and Dynamic System Theory (De Bot, Lowie, & Verspoor, 2007) [3]. As Larsen-Freeman (1997) [11] states the name of chaos/complexity science is paradoxical terminology in that the word science means order as well as complexity but in Ch/C this complexity is achieved through chaotic situation. In science we are searching for cause and effect connection while in Ch/C such a connection is not that much straightforward. Efforts have been invested to apply the concept into Second Language Acquisition (SLA) (Larsen-Freeman, 1997) [11] due to incommensurable issues in SLA Larsen-Freeman (1997) [11], especially, introduced the concept into SLA in detail, however, we think more works and speculations on the topic are required on all aspects which are related to SLA. To this end, this article is a critical review of the implication of Chaos/Complexity theory into SLA from three perspectives: the Nature of Language Complexity, SLA Incommensurable Theories, and the Complex Nature of Classroom.
 Nasrin Hadidi TAMJID Novitas-ROYAL , 2007, Abstract: System theory explores items in terms of their internal connectivities (interactions) and externalrelationships with their surroundings. It is argued that EFL research should be built on recent advances in scientificthinking and adopt systems theory for the purposes of investigating the English language classroom so that a morecomprehensive picture of the factors involved in learning can be drawn. Unlike some traditional scientificapproaches that analyze systems in isolation, chaos / complexity theory (C / CT) considers the synthesis of emergingwholes of their individual components. From unpredictable interactions larger structures emerge, taking on newforms. In this article, a brief look at chaos / complexity theory and its application on second language acquisition as adynamic and complex process is evaluated. While doing that, Larsen-Freeman’s (1997) work is used as the main textfor discussion.
 Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-63982009000200008 Abstract: the participation of the individual in different discursive practices contributes to the social formation of identity which is not only constituted, but also, fractalized and emerged via discourse. taking the concept of polyphony, proposed by bakhtin (1981, 1986), this work intends to discuss the social formation of the self and the emergence of multiple identities through the perspective of complexity theory. borrowing the concepts of attractors, bifurcation points and fractals from chaos theory, and relating them to identity issues, this paper shows how the acknowledgement of identity as a complex/chaotic system can be useful to a deeper understanding of the language acquisition process. some narratives of amfale project are used in order to exemplify the theoretical issues proposed.
 Ronaldo Mangueira Lima Júnior Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada , 2013, Abstract: This paper aims at situating the representation and investigation of second language phonology acquisition in light of complexity theory. The first section presents a brief historical panorama of complexity and chaos theory on second language acquisition, followed by the possible phonological representations and analyses aligned with such perspective. Finally, the issue of second language phonology acquisition is revisited. Este artigo tem por objetivo situar a representa o e a investiga o da aquisi o fonológica de segunda língua sob o prisma da complexidade. Parte-se de um breve panorama histórico sobre a teoria da complexidade e do caos na área da aquisi o de segunda língua para ent o expor as possibilidades de representa o e análise fonológica sob essa perspectiva. Finalmente, a quest o da investiga o da aquisi o da fonologia de segunda língua é retomada.
 Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2019.81001 Abstract: This paper analyses the condition of teaching and learning Chinese in Bangladeshi university classroom. Analysis of classroom conversation and interactions between teacher and student has been done to demonstrate the nature of interactions. The different subjects of interactive discussion were coded in order to determine how the approach of teaching impacted upon discourse. For this analysis, author used both qualitative and quantitative model to analyze the data and tried to figure out the nature of classroom interaction and compare between native and nonnative teacher’s classroom interaction. From this research, we have found that the nature and amount of classroom interaction between native and non-native teachers with their students is not the same. Our result will help the organization to make a decision whether a native or a non-native teacher will be more appropriate for Chinese language teaching in Bangladesh.
 Liliane Assis Sade Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada , 2009, Abstract: The participation of the individual in different discursive practices contributes to the social formation of identity which is not only constituted, but also, fractalized and emerged via discourse. Taking the concept of polyphony, proposed by Bakhtin (1981, 1986), this work intends to discuss the social formation of the self and the emergence of multiple identities through the perspective of Complexity Theory. Borrowing the concepts of attractors, bifurcation points and fractals from Chaos Theory, and relating them to identity issues, this paper shows how the acknowledgement of identity as a complex/chaotic system can be useful to a deeper understanding of the language acquisition process. Some narratives of AMFALE project are used in order to exemplify the theoretical issues proposed. A participa o do indivíduo em diferentes práticas discursivas contribui para a forma o social da identidade que n o apenas se fractaliza, mas emerge via discurso. Tomando-se o conceito de polifonia proposto por Bakhtin (1981, 1986), este trabalho pretende discutir a forma o social do eu e a emergência de múltiplas identidades pela perspectiva da Teoria da Complexidade. Fazendo uso dos conceitos de atratores, pontos de bifurca o e fractais da Teoria do Caos e relacionando-os às quest es de identidade, este artigo procura demonstrar como o reconhecimento da identidade como um sistema complexo e caótico pode ser útil para um entendimento mais profundo do processo de aquisi o de línguas. Algumas narrativas do projeto AMFALE s o usadas para ilustrar os pontos teóricos propostos.
 Jakob Steensig Nordlyd : Troms？ University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr？k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms？ , 2003, Abstract: This paper is written by a linguist who is working with language in interaction within the paradigm of Conversation Analysis. The topic of the paper was inspired by a seminar where the socalled K ge Project researchers, who investigate Turkish-Danish bilingual students in Denmark, invited researchers with different backgrounds and approaches to work on data from the K ge Project corpus (see Holmen & J rgensen (eds.) 2000). The paper contains deliberations about how Conversation Analysis can contribute to the study of bilingual interaction, and focuses on methodological problems and advantages of doing Conversation Analysis on bilingual data. The first part of the article briefly outlines the fields of “Conversation Analysis” and “the study of bilingual interaction” and sums up the methodological lessons from my earlier analyses of the data from the K ge Project. Then the author proceeds to showing some aspects of conversation-analytical methodology through concrete analyses of extracts from the K ge Project data.
 James Rogers Computer Science , 1995, Abstract: We introduce $L^2_{K,P}$, a monadic second-order language for reasoning about trees which characterizes the strongly Context-Free Languages in the sense that a set of finite trees is definable in $L^2_{K,P}$ iff it is (modulo a projection) a Local Set---the set of derivation trees generated by a CFG. This provides a flexible approach to establishing language-theoretic complexity results for formalisms that are based on systems of well-formedness constraints on trees. We demonstrate this technique by sketching two such results for Government and Binding Theory. First, we show that {\em free-indexation\/}, the mechanism assumed to mediate a variety of agreement and binding relationships in GB, is not definable in $L^2_{K,P}$ and therefore not enforcible by CFGs. Second, we show how, in spite of this limitation, a reasonably complete GB account of English can be defined in $L^2_{K,P}$. Consequently, the language licensed by that account is strongly context-free. We illustrate some of the issues involved in establishing this result by looking at the definition, in $L^2_{K,P}$, of chains. The limitations of this definition provide some insight into the types of natural linguistic principles that correspond to higher levels of language complexity. We close with some speculation on the possible significance of these results for generative linguistics.
 Charles Nelson International Journal of Instruction , 2011, Abstract: This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also commonalities across contexts by examining language learning through the lenses of emergence, distribution, and embodiment. These lenses underscore the perspective that language learning emerges from unique interactions, is distributed across social networks, and is embodied in individuals. Consequently, this paper concludes that it is not sufficient to study cognitive processes, activities, and situated learning alone; in addition, research must consider how learners’ interactions and adaptations are embodied, distributed, and emergent in ecologies of complex systems.
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