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The incorporation of the superego  [cached]
Marcela Negro de Leserre
Tesis Psicológica , 2010,
Abstract: This work makes a journey through the first 12 Lacan seminars, with the idea of explaining which is the constituent operation of the superego. Freud talks of the constitution of this instance from the primary identification; Lacan uses the Freudian terms, introjection and incorporation, as forms of that identification, and gives its particularity to each one. On his first seminars, the superego is linked to the symbolic and to language and the term introjection is used by Lacan to explain its origin. As his teaching advances, Lacan locates the superego in relation to the real, and would link it, to the voice object as well as to the oral object. From then on he would say that the adequate term to describe the birth of the moral instance is incorporation.
A transformation of critical rationalism
Discusiones Filosóficas , 2011,
Abstract: popper understands the rationality in terms of our intellectual attitude. our rationality (or reasonableness) is neither a faculty nor an intellectual gift. it is not something given to an individual, according to him. it is an attitude that we have acquired from our intellectual intercourse with others. popper does not use "rationalism" as a philosophical term that means intellectualism in opposition to empiricism. this paper clearly shows that popper understands rationalism not as the almightiness of reason, but as one's realization of the limit of reason. however, there arises a question; how has such a rationalist realized the limit of his own rationalism? how we should understand this limit? popper asserts that a rationalist has noticed the limit of rationalism by envisaging the self-defeating character of the comprehensive rationalism. in order to make more understandable his assertion, we must at first explain the comprehensive rationalism apprehended by popper.
Deflationism, Truth-Aptness and Non-Factualism
Massimiliano Vignolo
Studia Philosophica Estonica , 2008,
Abstract: I will argue that the standard formulation of non-factualism in terms of a denial of truth-aptness is consistent with a version of deflationsim. My line of argument assumes the use conception of meaning. This brings out an interesting consequence since mostly the philosophers who endorse the use conception of meaning, e.g. Paul Horwich, hold that deflationism is inconsistent with the strategy of implementing non-factualism in terms of a denial of truth-aptness and thereby urge a reformulation of non-factualism.
An evolutionary perspective on gradual formation of superego in the primal horde  [PDF]
Erdem Pulcu
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00008
Abstract: Freud proposed that the processes which occurred in the primal horde are essential for understanding superego formation and therefore, the successful dissolution of the Oedipus complex. However, Freud theorized superego formation in the primal horde as if it is an instant, all-or-none achievement. The present paper proposes an alternative model aiming to explain gradual development of superego in the primitive man. The proposed model is built on knowledge from evolutionary and neural sciences as well as anthropology, and it particularly focuses on the evolutionary significance of the acquisition of fire by hominids in the Pleistocene period in the light of archaeological findings. Acquisition of fire is discussed as a form of sublimation which might have helped Prehistoric man to maximise the utility of limited evolutionary biological resources, potentially contributing to the rate and extent of bodily evolution. The limitations of both Freud's original conceptualisation and the present model are discussed accordingly in an interdisciplinary framework.
Occidental rationalism in Max Weber's sociology of music  [PDF]
Jeremi?-Molnar Dragana,Molnar Aleksandar
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0929031j
Abstract: The paper views rationalism as a central category of an entire sociological endeavor of Max Weber in two dimensions: through the progress of mind in the understanding of 'the nature of things' and overcoming the resistance posed to the mind on that path by nature itself on the one hand, and through the struggle against irrationality of the very social beliefs and institutions which have gathered in history, on the other. When it comes to the first dimension, rationalization of music begins with the solving of the problem of the division of the octave (which cannot be divided symmetrically into equal parts) and ends in the obstruction of the 'spiral' effect of intervals which the octave is composed of. (in order to ensure undisturbed successive or 'circular' lining of octaves). The other dimension is problematise in the relation with the ascetic ethics and the spirit of pentatonics, which is presented as similar to the relation between protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism, only without the positive rationalist contributions of ascetic ethics.
Ethics and morality  [PDF]
Babi? Jovan
Theoria, Beograd , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/theo0802035b
Abstract: The article is an encyclopedia item prepared for an Encyclopedia of Democracy, forthcoming in Slu beni Glasnik, Belgrade, in collaboration with the School for Political Sciences at Belgrade University. The main goal in the article is to develop a definition of the morality as the subject of study for ethics, a part of philosophy dealing with the nature and the scope of possible application of morality as a specific evaluational criterion. Some basic features of this specificity have been explored, and a list of ethical theories have been briefly analyzed, two of them in some more details. A squelch of a possible connection between ethics and democracy has been given at the very end of the article.
On morality and chemistry
Hauke Fürstenwerth
Poiesis & Praxis , 2003, DOI: 10.1007/s10202-003-0037-2
Abstract: In this section I will not discuss the philosophical relationship of ethics and morality, nor reflect on whether certain moralities ought to be preferred over others, I will concentrate on the processes whereby in real life moral values are established and applied. Thus I am referring to values that will allow one, in specific contexts; to judge who morally is to be praised and who is to be blamed. Schummer [5] pretends to limit "responsibility" to a general level that does not allow such a differentiation. Although arguing in celestial spheres, he dares to draw far-reaching practical conclusions: "That moral conclusion does not only challenge individual chemists who synthesize new substances just because they did not exist before. It is also a moral challenge to the whole community of synthetic chemists for which synthesis is actually an end in itself. The fact that the internal norms and obligations of that community are not in agreement with general moral standards shows that the whole community does not recognize their general moral responsibility." One might expect a careful and comprehensive analysis before blaming a whole community of scientists of not recognizing their moral responsibility. However, Schummer fails to provide any evidence for that assertion. All he offers is his assumptions on internal norms and obligations of the community of synthetic chemists. Drawing far-reaching practical consequences from philosophical reasoning on general responsibility, based on hypothetical assumptions only, is lacking responsibility.
Natural Rights, Morality, and the Law  [PDF]
Drum Peter
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.21004
Abstract: It is argued that despite attempts to discount the importance of natural rights for morality, they are fundamental to it; therefore, so too are natural rights to the legitimacy of the law.
Engaging the World of the Supernatural: Anthropology, Phenomenology and the Limitations of Scientific Rationalism in the Study of the Supernatural
Theodore S Petrus
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , 2006,
Abstract: Scientific rationalism has long been considered one of the pillars of true science. It has been one of the criteria academics have used in their efforts to categorise disciplines as scientific. Perhaps scientific rationalism acquired this privileged status because it worked relatively well within the context of the natural sciences, where it seemed to be easy to apply this kind of rationalism to the solution of natural scientific problems. However, with the split in the scientific world between the natural sciences and the social sciences, the role of scientific rationalism, especially in the social sciences, becomes less clear-cut, with the ambiguous status of positivism in the social sciences making scientific rationalism more of a shaky foundation than a pillar of social science. The weaknesses inherent in scientific rationalism are most exposed within the context of anthropology, and particularly in the anthropological study of the supernatural, or supernatural beliefs. This paper will attempt to point out some of the weaknesses of scientific rationalism specifically within the context of the anthropology of the supernatural and religion. By doing so, it is hoped to show, with reference to some phenomenological ideas, that, while scientific rationalism does have its merits within anthropology, a rigid application of rationalism could become a limitation for anthropological studies of those aspects of human life that challenge Western scientific rationalism. The debate around the position of anthropology as a science or non-science is related to the issue of the role of scientific rationalism. This debate is indeed part of the history of anthropology and is as yet unresolved As such, the ideas of several earlier scholars will be referred to in an attempt to contextualise the arguments presented in this paper. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 6, Edition 1 May 2006
Zvada Oksana Viktorovna
Magister Dixit , 2012,
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of defining morality, establishing its semantic components. The article is devoted to the actual problem of morality’s ехрression in English language and the author tries to describe lexical units of frame “morality”.
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