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Folding Style of the Kuh-e Siah Anticline in the Sarvestan Area, Interior Fars, Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Zahra Maleki, Fatemeh Jahadgar
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.58050
Abstract: The Kuh-e Siah anticline is located in the Sarvestan area of the Fars province (186 km to Persian Gulf) and Interior Fars sub basin. This anticline is a fault bend fold and is located in the Sarvestan fault zone with Northwest-Southeast trend. The Sarvestan fault zone has caused main deformation by dextral strike slip activity in southern part of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The main aim of this paper is to determine of fold style elements and folding pattern of the Kuh-e Siah anticline. This paper presents part of the results of a regional study of the Fars province in the Zagros Simply folded belt, based on original fieldwork, satellite images, structural sections, geological maps and well data. In addition, we used some software as Global Mapper and Tectonics FP for prepared some data. Folds, which are close sideways, are neutral and these require special attention. It is remarkable that, in all sections of the Kuh-e Siah anticline, fold type is close and in the middle part of the anticline, fold type is different with other parts. In the middle part, fold type is upright-moderately gently plunging. On the other hand, in northwestern and southeastern parts fold type is similar together. These results maybe show that fold style follow that fold sigmoidal shape that created with two-fault segment of the Sarvestan fault zone in the study area. Therefore, it seems that the Kuh-e Siah anticline has suffered high deformation in the Sarvestan fault zone and this fault zone has created shear zone.
Morphotectonic Analysis of Burkh Anticline, North of Bastak (Zagros)  [PDF]
Mohammad Khalaj
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.56036
Abstract: Burkh Anticline having a length of 50 km and a width of 9 km is located 40 km to the north of Bastak City in Internal Fars zone along folded-thrust belt of Zagros. In order to assess the active tectonics in the area of study, morphotectonical indices such as valley index (V), ratio of valley floor to valley height (Vf), channel sinuosity index (S), mountain front faceting index (F%) and mountain front sinuosity(Smf) are studied. These investigations show that the activity is not equal in various sections along Burkh Anticline and the central part of this anticline is the most active one.
The Elements of Fold Style Analysis in the Khaftar Anticline, Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Zahra Maleki, Mehran Arian, Ali Solgi, Mohammad Ali Ganjavian
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.43008
Abstract:

The Study area is located in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt of Iran and in the interior Fars sub-basin. The Khaftar anticline is located in the West, North-West of Jahrom city in the Fars province (148 km distance from Persian Gulf). The trend of Khaftar anticline has three orientations, consist of North-Northeast, East-West and South-Southwest. This anticline has asymmetric structure and some faults with large strike separation observed in this anticline. In the study area, stratigraphic units are affected by many faults in this area. Also one salt plug cropping out in the middle part of the Khaftar anticline. Maybe this salt plug affected on the stratigraphic units and geometry of structure. Description of fold geometry is important because it allows comparisons within and between folds and allow us to recognize patterns in the occurrence and distribution of fold systems. The main aim of this paper is determination of fold style elements and folding pattern of the Khaftar anticline. This paper presents a part of the results of a regional study of the Fars province in the Zagros Simply folded belt, based on satellite images, geological maps, and well data. Some data, such as geological maps and geological regional data were prepared and provided by the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). Because of the Khaftar anticline, has complex structure, the analysis of fold style elements is seems necessary. Therefore, in further studies on this structure the changes of fold style elements will be analyzed and investigated from east to west in the different parts of this anticline. The activity of Nezamabad sinistral strike slip fault in the Khaftar anticline causes changes of axial plane characteristics and fold axis. Some of the results such as folding style analysis, how position of salt plug, changes of fold type and main structural changes (rotation of fold axis and 2.5 km displacement in this anticline) show main changes in the middle parts of the Khaftar anticline. It seems that, these changes have formed by activity of the Nezamabad fault and this fault’s activity same as fault zone.

Structural Style in the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt: The Gavbast Anticline, Coastal Fars  [PDF]
Hadi Vaseghi, Zahra Maleki, Mehran Arian
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.62011
Abstract: The Gavbast anticline is located in the Coastal Fars area of the Zagros folded belt, with north-south trend. The study anticline is restricted to the Bavush and Paskhand anticlines from North, the Gezzeh and Dehnow anticlines from South, the Varavi anticline from West and Nakh anticline from East (Figure 1). Description of fold geometry is important because they allow comparisons within and between folds and pattern-recognition in addition to occurrence and distribution of fold systems. The main goal of this paper is to define folding style of the Gavbast anticline and define structural features affected on them in the study area. In this research, we used the Tectonics FP software, Global Mapper software and geological maps and reports of Iranian National Oil Company. In addition, we used common classification of fold for indicating of folding mechanism of the Tabnak anticlinal structure. In the Gavbast anticline, fold style elements in all parts of this anticline have been calculated and analyzed for indicating of folding style mechanism. The results of this method have been shown the folding geometry changes accurately. The Gavbast anticline is gentle in structural sections D-D' and G-G' to K-K'. The anticline is an open fold in the L-L'?section. Also fold type in the E-E' and F-F' sections of the Gavbast anticline is steeply inclined sub-horizontal. These sections are located between the Razak (western part) and Hendurabi fault (eastern part). It seems that E-E' and F-F' parts in the Gavbast anticline have been suffered most deformation affected by the Razak and Hendurabi faults. At the end of, it seems that, the Razak and Hendurabi faults have major effects on folding style. This structure is a very good sample for effect of strike slip faults on the folding geometry and for this reason; the Gavbast anticline is considered a special structural style in the Zagros fold-thrust Belt.
Folding Mechanism in the Asmari Anticline, Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Azar Khodabakhshnezhad, Mehran Arian, Mohsen Pourkemani
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.54018
Abstract: Asmari anticline is a NW-SE fold in the Dezful Embayment sub-basin of Zagros. Fars group (Late Moicene-Quaternary) is cropping out in the cores of anticlines in this area, but Pabdeh and Asmari formations (Oligocene-Early Miocene) have cropped out only in Asmari anticline in the Dezful Embayment. Therefore, it has formed a unique exposure for above formations. In order to this situation, folding mechanism of Asmari anticline has investigated in this research. According to ourresults, Asmari anticline has two mechanisms: flexural-slip in post-Cretaceous sequences(Khami-Quaternary) and fault-bend folding in pre-Cretaceous sequences. So, there is a hybrid folding mechanism that has introduced for the first time in this paper.
Structural Style in the Khalfani Anticline, Coastal Fars, Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt  [PDF]
Arezo Baghbanan, Zahra Maleki, Mohsen Pourkemani
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.59058
Abstract: The Khalfani anticline is located in the Coastal Fars (Zagros, adjacent Persian Gulf). This anticline with Northwest-Southeast trend is a fault bend fold. In the study area, the Khalfani anticline has increased elevation from West to East with three distinct humps. The major faults in the study area are the Hendurabi and the Razak sinistral strike slip faults. Because analysis of fold and their folding styles in different parts system is important, the analysis of folding style elements is necessary for structural studies. The main aim of this research is structural style analysis based on fold style elements in the Khalfani anticline. This analysis is important for progress in hydrocarbons exploration in the Coastal Fars area. In this research, we used Tectonics FP and Global Mapper Software for preparing some data in our study. In addition, we used the common classification of folds for our research. Based on given results, the folding pattern of this anticline has indicated that the fold style is same in different parts of the Khalfani anticline. In the study area, based on classifications of fold in different methods, fold style is same together. Fold, with close sideways requires special attention as structural view; then the Khalfani Anticline with close style in all parts has special deformation and folding style. It seems that in the study area, folding style and variation of structural style have been created by effect of the Razak and the Hendurabi sinistral strike slip fault. Because these faults are basement or deep-seated faults, special folding style and special deformation can be formed in the study area. In addition, the Khalfani anticline in the study area has restricted within the Razak and the Hendurabi sinistral strike slip faults.
Sedimentary Environment and Relative Sea Level Changes of the Asmari Formation Deposited in Lurestan Basin, Southwest of Zagros  [PDF]
Ava Alizadeh, Davood Jahani, Mohammad Reza Kamali
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.77064
Abstract:
Asmari Formation is deposited in the Zagros Foreland basin during Oligo-Miocene time. In the presented research, Sheykh Makan (north of Kabir-Kuh Anticline) section located at Lurestan Basin is studied to achieve an understanding of facies changes, paleoenvironment and also sequence stratigraphic framework (relative sea level changes) of the Asmari Formation. Results of this study revealed that 15 microfacies grouped to four facies belts named as tidal flat, lagoon, barrier and open marine are the main constituents. A homoclinal ramp is determined as the depositional setting of the Asmari Formation. In Sheykh Makan Section, studied interval contains three third-order sequences aging oligmiocene. It overlies gradually shaly Pabdeh Formation and is overlain by evaporitic Gachsaran Formatin.
Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation at Khaviz Anticline, Zagros Mountains, Southwest Iran  [PDF]
Abdolhosein Kangazian, Mohammad Pasandideh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.62009
Abstract: The Oligocene-Miocene Asmari Formation is a thick sequence of shallow water carbonates of the Zagros Basin. Khaviz Anticline outcrop [near Behbahan city/Iran] was studied in this research in order to interpret the facies, depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation succession. In this study, twelve different microfacies types have been recognized, which can be grouped into five (micro) facies associations: peritidal, lagoon, shoal, semi restricted marine and open marine. The Asmari Formation represents sedimentation on a carbonate ramp. According to the fauna data, the Asmari Formation is Oligocene (Rupelian/Chattian) to Early Miocene (Burdigalian) in age at the study area. Eight third-order depositional sequences are identified on the basis of deepening and shallowing patterns in the microfacies. The depositional sequences 0 and 1 (Rupelian-Chattian), 2, 3 and 4 (Chattian) were referred to the lower while sequences 5and 6 (Aquitanian) were referred to the middle and sequence 7 (Burdigalian) was referred to the upper Asmari Formation. The relative sea-level curve of the Asmari basin and its matching with the global sea-level curves documented that Global eustatic phenomena affected this basin.
Hydrocarbon Trap and Folding Style of the Pishvar Anticline, Sub-Coastal Fars, Zagros  [PDF]
Nafiseh Hajnorouzi, Mohsen Pourkemani, Zahra Maleki
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.66033
Abstract: The Pishvar anticline with Northwest-Southeast trend is located in the Sub-Coastal Fars area. This anticline with 80 Km length and 5 - 7 Km width is located in western part of the Lar area. The Pishvar anticline has two closures that are separated together by smooth down-warp. The oldest units that have outcropped on the surfaces are Asmari and Jahrom Formations. The most faults that observed on the Pishvar anticline are Normal fault. In the study area, the Razak and Hendurabi faults are main faults. These faults are strike slip with sinistral displacement. This anticline has greater dip in Northern flank compared to Southern flank. In this research, the main aim is folding style analysis, based on Description of fold geometry for indicate hydrocarbon trap structure in the Pishvar anticline. Description of fold geometry is important because they allow comparisons within and between folds and pattern-recognition in addition to occurrence and distribution of fold systems. We used Tectonics FP and Global Mapper Software for prepared some data in our study. In addition, we used the common classification of folds for our research. Based on results, the folding pattern of this anticline has indicated the fold style has different type in different parts of the Pishvar anticline. According to fold style variation and deformation analysis from B-B’ to C-C’ parts of the study anticline, it seems that the location of the Razak sinistral strike slip fault has existed in this parts. Fold style change can show this case. In addition, fold style variation and deformation analysis from E-E’ to F-F’ parts of this anticline has been affected of the secondary fault that is related to the Razak sinistral strike slip fault. We introduced this fault for first time. Finally, Based on results in this research, in western part there is little probability for access to hydrocarbon trap in upper horizons, unless the exploratory drilling continues to the deeper horizons.
Folding Style Analysis of the Tabnak Sweet Gas Field, Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Marzieh Badrkhani, Zahra Maleki, Mehran Arian
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.68073
Abstract: The Zagros fold-thrust belt in Iran is home to one of the enormous petroleum producing reservoirs in the word. The Tabnak gas field in this belt is one of the enormous sweet gas fields that discovered on the land. This anticlinal structure is located in the Coastal Fars sub-basin and is bounded from North by the Varavi gas field, from South by the Kuh-e Madar anticline, from East by Assaluyeh gas field and from West by Kuh-e Dehnow anticline. Its length is about 80 km and width is about 15 km. This structure is asymmetric anticline and is located with irregular near the Assaluyeh gas field. The Tabnak gas field is deepest structure between anticlines in the Coastal Fars area. This gas field has a special place for accommodating the enormous Hydrocarbon resources and for this reason, it is very important for Iran country. In this structure, the Dashtak, Kangan and upper Dalan Formations have Hydrocarbon. Analysis and description of fold style elements are essential for structural studies. Based on this case, the comparison of the fold styles and folding mechanism is possible. The main aim in this research is the analysis of the fold style elements of the Tabnak anticline for determining the folding pattern and tectonic regime on this structure. This case has very important for Hydrocarbon exploration between gas fields in the Fars area. In this research, we used the Tectonics FP software, Global Mapper software and geological maps and reports of Iranian National Oil Company. In addition, we used common classification of fold for indicating folding mechanism of the Tabnak anticlinal structure. Based on analysis of the fold style elements, the Tabnak anticlinal
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