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Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India
Pallav Purohit, Axel Michaelowa
Carbon Balance and Management , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-2-8
Abstract: Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020.The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.The global energy demand is expected to grow at a staggering rate in the next 30 years. The International Energy Agency [1] predicts that the world's energy needs will be almost 60% higher in 2030 than they are now. Two-thirds of this increase will arise in China, India and other rapidly developing economies, which will account for almost half the energy consumption by 2030. Sharp increases in world energy demand will trigger important investments in generating capacity and grid infrastructure. According to the IEA, the global power sector will need to build some 4,800 GW of new capacity between now and 2030.In the 11th Five Year Plan, the Government of India aims to achieve a GDP growth rate of 10% and maintain an average growth of about 8% in the next 15 years [2]. According to Indian government officials, the growth of Indian economy is highly dependent on the growth on its energy consumption [3]. The 2006 capacity of power plants in India was 124 GW, of which 66% thermal, 25% hydro, 3% nuclear and 5% new renewables [4]. At the same time, Chinese power capacity reached over 600 GW [5], showing India's backlog. Wind energy is a
Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production
Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of adoption of clean milk production practices by the dairy farmers. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000): 79-81]
On clean ideals  [PDF]
Huanyin Chen,Miaosen Chen
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171203211339
Abstract: We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.
-clean rings
Weixing Chen
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/75247
Abstract: In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.
Clean Area Classification  [cached]
Rajendra Awasthi,Kamal Dua
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: A clean room is a room with environmental control of particulate contamination, temperature and humidity, constructed and used in such away as to minimize the introduction, generation and retention of the particles inside the room.Clean rooms are needed to reduce contaminations levels in the product or services performed.Definition of clean area:(a)Federal Standard 209 Definition of clean room“A clean room is an enclosed area employing control over the particulate matter in air with temperature, humidity and pressure control as required. To meet the requirement of a ‘clean room’ as defined by this standard, all clean rooms must not exceed a particulate count as specified in the air cleanliness class.”This standard first issued in 1963, has been used in the correct version 209B amendment since 1976. It is shortly to be reissued, entitled “airborne particulate cleanliness classes for clean room and clean zones.”(b) BS 5295(British standard) definition of clean room:This standard dates from 1976 and falls in to 3parts:PART 1: Specification for control environmental clean rooms, work stations and clean air devices.PART 2: Guide to construction and installation of clean rooms, work stations and clean air devices.PART3: Guide to the operational procedure and disciplines applicable to clean rooms, work stations and clean air.
Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings  [PDF]
Abhay K. Singh
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly clean and direct product of n- strongly clean rings. It has also been shown that for any commutative ring R, the polynomial ring R (x) is not {\Sigma}-strongly clean ring.
Classes of almost clean rings  [PDF]
Evrim Akalan,Lia Vas
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean. We say that a ring $R$ is special clean (special almost clean) if each element $a$ can be decomposed as the sum of a unit (regular element) $u$ and an idempotent $e$ with $aR\cap eR=0.$ The Camillo-Khurana Theorem characterizes unit-regular rings as special clean rings. We prove an analogous theorem for abelian Rickart rings: an abelian ring is Rickart if and only if it is special almost clean. As a corollary, we show that a right quasi-continuous and right nonsingular ring is left and right Rickart. If a special (almost) clean decomposition is unique, we say that the ring is uniquely special (almost) clean. We show that (1) an abelian ring is unit-regular (equiv. special clean) if and only if it is uniquely special clean, and that (2) an abelian and right quasi-continuous ring is Rickart (equiv. special almost clean) if and only if it is uniquely special almost clean. Finally, we adapt some of our results to rings with involution: a *-ring is *-clean (almost *-clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and a projection (self-adjoint idempotent). A special (almost) *-clean ring is similarly defined by replacing ``idempotent'' with ``projection'' in the appropriate definition. We show that an abelian *-ring is a Rickart *-ring if and only if it is special almost *-clean, and that an abelian *-ring is *-regular if and only if it is special *-clean.
r-clean rings  [PDF]
Nahid Ashrafi,Ebrahim Nasibi
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.
Weak Nil Clean Rings  [PDF]
Dhiren Kumar Basnet,Jayanta Bhattacharyya
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\in \mathbb{N}$, for which $\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner ring $eRe$ is also weak* nil clean. Also we discuss $S$-weak nil clean rings and their properties, where $S$ is a set of idempotents and show that if $S=\{0, 1\}$, then a $S$-weak nil clean ring contains a unique maximal ideal. Finally we show that weak* nil clean rings are exchange rings and strongly nil clean rings provided $2\in R$ is nilpotent in the later case. We have ended the paper with introduction of weak J-clean rings.
Health Care in India  [PDF]
BM Hegde
Australasian Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The modern medical facilities in India are of such good quality that the National Health Service of the UK is negotiating with many corporate hospitals in India to get their patients on the long waiting lists to be flown to India for elective surgery. Be that as it may, health is not contigent on the availability of medical technology but contigent on basic provisions; clean water, three square meals a day, freedom from the effects of pollution and the skills to earn a living.
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