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Hydropower in the Amazon: renewability and non-renewability of energy policy. Since is desired the search for renewable energy conversion why not renew the energy policy as well?  [cached]
Francisco Del Moral Hernandez
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2012,
Abstract: The essay intends to discuss, with the background of the recent hydroelectric plants under way in the Brazilian Amazon, aspects relating to processes of environmental licensing, conceptual problems that concern the characterization of hydropower conversion as clean and renewable energy. This work starts from the analysis of government plans and discussions on hydropower projects, identifying the need to implement institutional changes and strengthen environmental laws and the protection of the rights of traditional and indigenous populations. We propose a new way of formulating energy problems and energy supply planning, which takes into consideration sustainable aspects and the public discussion, beyond understanding and incorporating the effects on the major biogeochemical cycles that support energy conversions.
False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower  [PDF]
James Randall Kahn,Carlos Edwar Freitas,Miguel Petrere
Energies , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/en7096063
Abstract: The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.
NEWAVE versus ODIN: comparison of stochastic and deterministic models for the long term hydropower scheduling of the interconnected brazilian system
Zambelli, M?nica;Soares Filho, Secundino;Toscano, André Emilio;Santos, Erinaldo dos;Silva Filho, Donato da;
Sba: Controle & Automa??o Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-17592011000600005
Abstract: this paper compares the newave model, a stochastic dual dynamic programming based approach used in brazil for the long term hydropower scheduling of the interconnected brazilian power system, to the odin model (optimal dispatch for the interconnected brazilian national system), a deterministic approach based on model predictive control. the former adopts a composite representation of the hydro system and piecewise linear approximations to make the application of dynamic programming solution technique possible to the brazilian system. the latter uses a nonlinear optimization algorithm considering predicted future inflows with a detailed representation of the individual power plants. data from official sources were used to formulate a case study on the monthly operation planning of january 2011 that considers the projected expansion plans up to december 2015. tests were performed by simulation using 75 historical inflow scenarios. in comparison to the scheduling provided by the stochastic approach, the proposed deterministic one was found to provide a superior performance due to the more efficient use of water resources, leading to a more secure and economic operation.
Quali-quantitative analysis of deadwood in ageing Holm oak coppices of Gargano
Marziliano PA
Forest@ , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/efor0555-006
Abstract: Necromass has been included within the indicators for the biodiversity and naturality assessment of the forest ecosystems and for the sustainable forest management. Taking into account this fact, the purpose of this work has been the quantification and qualification of the necromass in ageing coppices of the Gargano. To pursue this aim, three experimental areas, with 2500 m2 of surface each one, where the necessary reliefs have been effected, have been realized. The estimated deadwood volume is 34 m3 ha-1 and the stored carbon contents is 12.62 Mg C ha-1. The stand analysis pointed out that the quantity of present necromass is intrinsically linked whether to the culture abandonment or to the meteoric disturbances. Moreover the quantity and quality of necromass can be an indicator whether of the forest stability or of the stand evolutive trend in relatively recent times. The study of the quali-quantitative characteristics of the necromass in wood helps to understand the evolutive phases where a forest stand is in, and it can be, with other parameters, a guide to the planning and management. And today, just in the planning and management of the forest resources, we must give a higher importance to the presence of necromass in wood, not only in quantitative terms but also in qualitative ones.
Licensing by modification Licensing by modification
Veneeta Dayal
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: : This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.Licensing by modification : This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.
Libraries and licensing  [PDF]
Maja ?umer
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 2001,
Abstract: In the mid 90s, the abundance of various electronic publications exposed libraries to the problems of licensing electronic content. Various licensing principles have been prepared recently to help libraries in the process; it can be said that in general, the knowledge of licensing issues has improved in libraries of all types. Libraries form consortia in order to gain stronger negotiating positions and obtain better conditions.In the article, new licensing principles are presented in more detail, as well as some domestic and foreign experiences with consortia forming.
L’analyse quali-quantitative comparée (AQQC) : un outil innovant pour l’étude de l’action publique  [cached]
Gisèle De Meur,Beno?t Rihoux,Frédéric Varone
Pyramides : Revue du Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique , 2011,
Abstract: Cet article présente l’analyse quali-quantitative comparée (AQQC) en quelques mots et vise à démontrer son utilité et sa valeur ajoutée en tant qu’outil méthodologique pour les sciences relatives à l’action publique (administration publique, politiques publiques et évaluation de programmes). L’AQQC ouvre en effet de nouvelles pistes de recherche empirique sur les modalités de réforme du secteur public (comparaison entre organisations administratives et parastatales), sur la conduite de politiques sectorielles dans différentes entités politico-administratives (au sein d’un régime fédéraliste ou entre les Etats-membres de l’Union européenne) ou sur les effets induits par des programmes d’actions (auprès de différents groupes-cibles ou dans divers contextes socio-économiques).
Quali concetti politici per l'Europa?  [cached]
Giuseppe Duso
Scienza & Politica : per una Storia delle Dottrine , 2005, DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-9618/2820
Abstract: Quali concetti politici per l'Europa?
Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations
Mittelmann, Andréa;Miranda Filho, José Branco de;Nass, Luciano Louren?o;Lima, Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de;Hara-Klein, Claudete;Silva, Ricardo Machado da;
Scientia Agricola , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162011000100008
Abstract: development of maize (zea mays l.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. the objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten brazilian maize populations evaluated in three environments. a randomized block design with six replications was used. ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. populations diverged for most of the traits. environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.
Licensing Contracts in Hotelling Structure  [PDF]
Tarun Kabiraj, Ching Chyi Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13013
Abstract: This paper discusses the question of optimal licensing contracts in Hotelling structure and focuses on the unique features of this structure in this context. We show that a royalty equilibrium exists if and only if transport cost lies in a specified interval, but the royalty rate can be higher than the amount of cost saving. While fee licensing only is never profitable, the optimal licensing contract consists of both fee and royalty. In equilibrium the market is fully covered with monopolistic goods.
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