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The relationship among metabolic rate of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) under cold acclimation  [PDF]
Lin Zhang,Wenrong Gao,Wenxiu Jiang,Zhengkun Wang
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: Many small mammals inhabiting cold environments display enhanced capacity for seasonal changes in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and thermoregulatory maximum metabolic rate (MMR). However, it is not known how this plasticity remains in a mammal that rarely experiences extreme cold fluctuations. In order to answer this question, we determined body mass ( Mb), basal metabolic rate (BMR), NST, and MMR on a tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), acclimated to cold (5 oC) conditions. NST was measured as the maximum response of metabolic rate (NSTmax) after injection of norepinephrine (NE) in thermoneutrality minus BMR. Maximum metabolic rate was assessed in animals exposed to enhanced heat-loss atmosphere (He-O2) connected with an open-flow respirometer. Body mass and metabolic variables increased significantly after cold acclimation with respect to control group but to a high extent (BMR, 87.97%; NST, 69.77%; and MMR, 32.35%). However, aerobic scope (MMR/BMR), and calculated shivering thermogenesis (ST) did not significantly change with control group. Our data suggest: 1). The body mass and the capacity of heat production in the cold acclimated group were higher; 2). The increase of BMR and MMR during cold acclimation was the main pattern of heat production in the tree shrews.
Characterization of spontaneous breast tumor in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinenesis)
自发性树鼩乳腺肿瘤的特性

夏厚军,王春艳,张海林,何保丽,角建林,陈策实
动物学研究 , 2012,
Abstract: Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor. It is essential to develop suitable animal models for discovering novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have a closer evolutionary relationship with humans than do rodents, which have been widely used in laboratory research. Spontaneous breast tumors were identified in tree shrews in 1960s; however, no detailed studies about tree shrew breast tumors have been conducted to date. Here, we characterized a spontaneous breast tumor from tree shrews by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining. This tumor was identified as a papillary tumor. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3 showed that tumor cells were positive for PR, highly proliferative, and less apoptotic compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Thus, the spontaneous tumor of tree shrew is very close to human papillary tumors in terms of morphology and pathology and we concluded that tree shrew may be a suitable animal model for breast cancer research.
分子粪便学在中缅树鼩中的应用可能性
Application of Molecular Scatology in Tree Shrews, Tupaia belangeri
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严毅, 陈金龙, 何银忠, 王娟, 付家豪
Bioprocess (BP) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/BP.2016.63009
Abstract: 中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)作为东洋界特有的小型哺乳动物,主要处于横断山山脉地区,其已被证实与灵长目亲缘性较近,并逐渐在医学上被应用为实验动物,但是对于其野外的研究甚少。本文以分子粪便学为基础从分子标记、性别鉴定以及巢域确定等方面阐述了其应用在野外中缅树鼩研究中的可能性,为进一步研究中缅树鼩及使其成为标准实验动物化化与合适的实验动物疾病模型提供了理论依据。
Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) as the small mammals in oriental endemic, mainly in Hengduan Mountains region, has been proved to be close affinity with the primates, and gradually became an experimental animal. But the study of the wild is very little. This paper, based on molecular sca-tology, expounds the possibility of molecular scatology being employed in the study of Tupaia belangeri in wild area in these aspects of molecular marker, sex determination and home range con-firmation. It lays a foundation for the further study in Tupaia belangeri, making it become the standard experimental animals and an appropriate experimental animal disease model provides a theoretical basis.
中缅树鼩的生理生态和行为学研究进展
Progress and Prospect of Studies on Physiological and Behavioral Ecology in Tree Shrews, Tupaia belangeri
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侯东敏, 朱万龙, 高文荣, 张浩, 王政昆
Bioprocess (BP) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/BP.2016.63006
Abstract: 中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)作为东洋界特有的小型哺乳动物以及人类代谢性疾病动物模型,对其进行生理生态学研究有助于了解其对季节性环境变化的适应策略及其体内产热机制等生态学和进化生物学问题,具有十分重要的意义。通过对中缅树鼩行为方面的研究,可为其作为实验动物的驯化饲养和行为生态研究奠定基础。本文阐述了关于中缅树鼩的生理生态和行为学特征的研究进展,以期对未来可能的发展方向进行展望。
As a typical small mammal in the oriental realm and an animal model for the metabolic disease of human, it is significative to do physiological and ecological research on Tupaia belangeri, which helps to believe its adaptive strategy of seasonal climate change and its body thermogenesis me-chanism problems in ecology and evolutionary biology. Meanwhile, research on the behavior of Tupaia belangeri can lay the foundation to domesticate them as an experimental animal and do behavioral ecological research. The article expounds the research progress on the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the tree shrew, attempting to point out the development direction of future.
东洋界特有种——中缅树鼩生理生态学研究进展及其展望
Oriental Endemic Species—Progress and Prospect of Studies on Physiological Ecology in Tree Shrews, Tupaia belangeri
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高文荣, 朱万龙
Bioprocess (BP) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/BP.2014.44011
Abstract:
中缅树鼩为东洋界特有的小型哺乳动物,具有特殊的进化地位,在生物医学上被广泛采用为实验动物。本论文以中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)为研究对象,从个体、组织及分子水平对中缅树鼩的产热特征及能量代谢进行了系统的研究。得到以下成果:首次从生理生态学角度支持了树鼩由南向北扩散的“岛屿起源”假说,温度是限制中缅树鼩继续向北扩散的主要因素;中缅树鼩的产热特征及能量代谢具有季节性和日节律变化,温度和光周期对产热特征及能量代谢具有显著影响。研究成果为东洋界小型哺乳动物的生理生态适应模式与对策提供了理论依据。
Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is a small mammal in Oriental endemic with special evolution status, and it has been widely used in biomedicine as experimental animal. In this paper, we used T. belan-geri as the research object, thermogenesis and energy metabolism were measured in system of T. belangeri from individual, organization and molecular levels. The following results were obtained: for the first time to support the “island origin” hypothesis that T. belangeri diffused from south to north from the physiological ecology angle, and temperature is the major factor which limited T. be-langeri continued northward diffusion; thermal characteristics and energy metabolism in T. belan-geri with seasonal and diurnal variation; temperature and photoperiod had significant effects on its thermal characteristics and energy metabolism. Research results provide a theoretical basis of phy-siological ecological adaptation model and countermeasures for Oriental small mammals.
Interferon-Lambda3 (IFN-λ3) and Its Cognate Receptor Subunits in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Genomic Sequence Retrieval, Molecular Identification and Expression Analysis  [PDF]
Ming-Li Li, Wen-Wen Xu, Yue-Dong Gao, Yan Guo, Wen-Ju Wang, Chao Wang, Shi-You Jiang, Andrew Willden, Jing-Fei Huang, Hua-Tang Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060048
Abstract: Type III IFNs (IFN-λs) constitute a new subfamily with antiviral activities by signaling through a unique receptor complex composed of IFN-λs receptor 1 (IFNλR1) and interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL10R2). As tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) have shown susceptiblility to several human viruses, they are a potentially important model for analyzing viral infection. However, little is known about their IFN-λs system. We used the tree shrew genome to retrieve IFN-λs and their receptor contig sequences by BLASTN and BLASTZ algorithms, and GenScan was used to scan transcripts from the putative contig sequences. RT-PCR and bioinformatic methods were then used to clone and characterize the IFN-λs system. Due to its highest identity with human IFN-λ3, we opted to define one intact IFN-λ gene, tsIFN-λ3, as well as its two receptor subunits, tsIFNλR1 and tsIL10R2. Additionally, our results showed that tsIFN-λ3 contained many features conserved in IFN-λ3 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the type III IFNR. We also found six transcript variants in the receptors: three in tsIFNλR1, wherein different extracellular regions exist in three transmembrane proteins, resulting in different affinities with IFN-λs; and three more variants in tsIL10R2, encoding one transmembrane and two soluble proteins. Based on tissue distribution in the liver, heart, brain, lung, intestine, kidney, spleen, and stomach, we found that IFN-λs receptor complex was expressed in a variety of organs although the expression level differed markedly between them. As the first study to find transcript variants in IL-10R2, our study offers novel insights that may have important implications for the role of IFN-λs in tree shrews’ susceptibility with a variety of human viruses, bolstering the arguments for using tree shrews as an animal model in the study of human viral infections.
中缅树鼩解偶联蛋白-1基因部分序列的扩增与分析
Amplification and Analysis of the Partial cDNA Sequence of UCP1 Gene in Tupaia belangeri
 [PDF]

高文荣, 朱万龙
Bioprocess (BP) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/BP.2014.44010
Abstract:
解偶联蛋白-1 (UCP1)是分布于线粒体内膜上的一种产热蛋白,其主要功能是参与褐色脂肪组织(BAT)的产热调节和能量代谢来维持机体的能量代谢平衡。本研究通过设计简并引物进行反转录聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR),从中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)BAT中成功获得444 bp UCP1 cDNA核心片段。推测其氨基酸序列为148个氨基酸;经结构功能分析发现,此段氨基酸序列具有32 bp UCPs 共同具有的同源序列,具有13 bp中缅树鼩BAT UCP1的特异性序列;进行氨基酸同源性序列比较分析表明,中缅树鼩与小家鼠、褐家鼠、灰仓鼠、家兔、马、猫、牛、海象、黑猩猩和大熊猫UCP1的同源性分别为80%、81%、82%、86%、85%、86%、89%、87%、83%和88%。结果表明:UCP1编码区在哺乳动物中具有较高保守性,提示UCP1在脊椎动物中扮演着重要的生理角色。
Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) is a kind of heat producing protein, which distributes on the inner membrane of mitochondria. Its main function is to maintain the body’s energy metabolic balance by participating thermogenic regulation and energy metabolism in BAT. In this study, we designed primers and used reversing transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This experiment successfully obtained 444 bp BAT UCP1 cDNA core fragment of tree shrews, and we speculated that the amino acid sequence were 148 amino acids. After structure-function analysis, we found that fragment composed of these amino acid possessed 32 bp homologous sequence of UCPs and 13 bp specific sequence of UCP1 in Tupaia belangeri. After the comparison of amino acid sequence ho-mology, the results showed that the UCP1 homology between tree shrews and other animals like Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Cricetulus griseus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Equus caballus, Felis ca-tus, Bos taurus, Odobenus rosmarus, Pongo abelii and Ailuropoda melanoleuca was respectively 80%, 81%, 82%, 86%, 85%, 86%, 89%, 87%, 83% and 88%. UCP1 coding region showed higher conser-vation in mammals, suggesting that UCP1 plays an important physiological role in vertebrates.
CXC Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Receptor CXCR4 in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Structure, Expression and Function  [PDF]
Guiyuan Chen, Wei Wang, Shengke Meng, Lichao Zhang, Wenxue Wang, Zongmin Jiang, Min Yu, Qinghua Cui, Meizhang Li
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098231
Abstract: Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases.
Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis): A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans  [cached]
Wang Qi,Schwarzenberger Paul,Yang Fang,Zhang Jingjing
Virology Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-9-170
Abstract: Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia) is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228) weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance.
阿尔茨海默病树鼩模型建立的探索
Establishment of the Alzheimer's Disease Model in Tupaia belangeri
 [PDF]

欧阳轶强,胡冰,张莹,罗少仕,梁锦宁,李家富,郭松超
- , 2016,
Abstract: 中文摘要: 目的 探索建立树鼩阿尔茨海默病(AD)动物模型的可行性。 方法 将30只成年雄性树鼩 Tupaia belangeri随机分成3组,模型组腹腔注射D-半乳糖(D-gal)造成急性衰老后,对树鼩双侧海马内一次性注射β淀粉样蛋白1~42片段(Aβ1~42)和鹅膏蕈氨酸(IBO)的混合液,对照(生理盐水)组将所有药物替换为等剂量生理盐水,空白组不做处理。用Morris水迷宫对3组树鼩进行行为学测试,用苏木精-伊红染色法和镀银染色法进行病理检测分析。 结果 Morris水迷宫测试结果提示,模型树鼩出现了明显的学习记忆功能障碍。病理检测结果显示,模型组脑海马区出现明显胶质细胞增生和神经纤维缠结。对照组和空白组无明显病理改变。 结论 腹腔注射D-gal,双侧海马注射Aβ1~42和IBO混合液的方法可以造成树鼩学习记忆能力下降,并出现神经胶质细胞增生和神经纤维缠结,是一种可行的树鼩AD模型造模方法。
英文摘要: Objective To explore the feasibility of establishing Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal model with tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri). Method 30 adult male tree shrews were randomly divided into three groups. Intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose (D-gal) was made to the model group causing acute aging, then the mixture of amyloid protein β1~42 fragment (Aβ1~42) and ibotenic acid (IBO) was injected once into the bilateral hippocampus of the tree shrews; all those drugs were replaced with normal saline in equivalent doses for the control group, while no treatment was done to the blank group. Then behavioral test was conducted to the three groups of tree shrew through Morris water maze, and pathological detection and analysis was made through HE staining and silver impregnation staining. Result Morris water maze test suggested that significant learning and memory dysfunction occurred on the model tree shrews. The pathological detection indicated that significant gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles occurred at the cerebral hippocampus of the model group. No significant pathological changes happened on the control group and the blank group. Conclusion Intraperitoneal injection of D-gal and injection of the mixture of Aβ1~42 and IBO into the bilateral hippocampus would cause decline in learning and memory ability of the tree shrews, as well as gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles, thus it was a feasible modeling method of AD model with tree shrew. 2016,(35): 270-274 收稿日期:2015-09-17 DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20150284 分类号:Q95-33 基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31560612); 广西科技基础条件平台建设项目(12-97-23);广西自然科学基金回国基金项目(2012GXNSFCA053005);广西自然科学基金面上项目(2013GXNSFAA019147) 作者简介:欧阳轶强(1977-), 博士研究生, 从事人类疾病动物模型研究 *通讯作者:郭松超, 博士生导师, 研究方向:营养与疾病, 实验动物学, E-mail:2433164518@qq.com 参考文献: 何保丽, 角建林, 李波, 等. 2013. 天麻素对老年痴呆树鼩海马BDNF 表达的影响[J]. 昆明医科大学学报, (9): 29-30. 刘学凤, 李义松, 冯丽谦, 等. 2012. 阿尔茨海默病大鼠模型复制的实验研究[J]. 中医学报, 27(175): 1606-1608. 武聪, 庄莹, 李艳茹, 等. 2012. 人参皂苷Rg2对阿尔茨海默病模型大鼠海马神经元结构及突触素表达的影响[J]. 中国老年学杂志, 3(32): 989-992. 许凌, 范宇, 蒋学龙, 等. 2013. 树鼩进化分类地位的分子证据[J]. 动物学研究, 34(2): 70-76. 李文德, 吴玉娥, 闵凡贵, 等. 2010. 颅内注射淀粉样β蛋白片段1-42和thiorphan对恒河猴脑内淀粉样β蛋白表达的影响[J]. 中国药理学与毒理学杂志, 2(24): 89-95. 杨文光. 1990.
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