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Histochemical Characterization of Dehydrogenases in the Nephron of the One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)  [PDF]
Bashir M. Jarrar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: A histochemical investigation on the distribution and localization of nine dehydrogenases in the nephron of the one-humped camel, Camelus dromdarius was undertaken. The histoenzymological tests employed in this study detected glucose-6-phosphate, -glycerophosphate, succinate, lactate, malate, glutamate, isocitrate, NADH and NADPH dehydrogenases. The functional significance of the findings is discussed in accordance with the adaptation of the species under study to its harsh desert habitat.
Characterization of recombinant Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) insulin
AM Al-Swailem, MB Al-Fageeh, EJ Alyamani, MM Shehata, TA Al-Shammari
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The production of hormones by biotechnological approaches has contributed significantly to treatment of many diseases. DNA recombinant technology has facilitated production of new forms of insulin from many species and mammalian insulin to be used as a therapy for diabetic patients. In this study, proinsulin from Arabian camel was produced and characterized for the first time by recombinant technology. Recombinant camel proinsulin was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to be produced and characterized it in vitro. Camel proinsulin sequence was compared with human insulin sequences. Camel proinsulin is 5.8 kDa in size and includes 87 amino acids with highly conserved domains. Proinsulins are highly conserved enzymes in many mammals; camel proinsulin possesses 87.5% homology to human proinsulin by amino acid sequences. The C peptide chain is made up of a total of 35 amino acids of which 27 amino acids are identical and the remaining are variable. The three dimensional structure of camel proinsulin was deduced for molecule homology studies with human proinsulin. The results suggest that, camel proinsulin cDNA may be used as a specific probe for proinsulin studies with other organisms and may serve biotechnology field as a model for future comparative enzymatic, therapeutic and pharmaceutical studies.
Preliminary pharmacological investigations on camel urine (Camelus dromedarius)
Salwa M. E. Khogali,,Samia .H. Abdrahman Baragob,,A. E. A,Elhassan A. M
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Pharmacological effects of camel urine (CU), its protein precipitate (PP), diluted urine (DU) and chloroformic extract (CE) were investigated. The PP inhibited the spontaneous movements of the isolated rat duodenum at a dose rate of 0.1ml/bath. Diluted female camel urine (0.4 ml/bath) or its protein precipitate (0.8 ml/bath) on rat fundus and rabbit jejunum revealed serotonin like effect which was antagonized by serotonin blocker cypohyptadine (0.2 ml /bath). In addition crude female camel urine produced transient relaxation on rabbit jejunum followed by increased contraction on first washing. chloroformic extract produced no effect on rat duodenum, fundus and rabbit jejunum, whereas rabbit and chick rectum showed slight changes in the frequency and amplitude contractions.
Seasonal Variation in Blood Constituents of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)  [PDF]
Alia S.A. Amin,Khalid A. Abdoun,Abdalla M. Abdelatif
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study was carried out in southern Darfur, Sudan during dry-and green (wet) season and was designed to investigate the effects of season (dry-versus green season) on the blood constituents of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Two hundred and ten blood samples collected from apparently healthy one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of different age and sex groups were used in this study, out of which 110 blood samples were collected during the dry season, while 100 blood samples were collected during the green season. The data analysis revealed that the season had significant effects on some of the haematological indices and the blood metabolites and minerals concentrations. The red blood cells count, lymphocytes and basophils percentages increased significantly during the dry season, while the osmotic resistance, MCV, MCH and neutrophils percentage increased significantly during the green season. The serum levels of total protein, globulins and triglycerides increased significantly during the dry season, while the concentrations of plasma glucose and serum urea, creatinine, phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) increased significantly during the green season. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the nutritional status could induce significant changes in the physiological responses of the dromedary camel. The available forage during the green season improved the body condition, the blood metabolic and mineral profile in camels. The results indicate that despite camel’s selectivity and unique adaptation to arid conditions; glucose, urea, P and Ca levels were lower during the dry season. Therefore, it could be beneficial to provide concentrate feed to camels kept under dry tropical conditions.
Some Reproductive and Productive Traits of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Western Sudan
H. H. Musa,E. S. Shuiep,E. M. El Zubier Ibtisam,G.H. Chen
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Some reproductive and productive traits of the One-humped Camel dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Western Sudan were studied. The results of reproductive traits presented in this study indicated that Camel was conceived and calved through out the year and a high incidence was observed in wet-summer season. Age at first oestrus (months), oestrus cycle (days) oestrus duration (hours) was 39.24±5.78, 12.29±4.09 and 18.56±8.01, respectively. Age at first calving (months), gestation length (days) and calving interval (month) was 52.41±7.74, 370.28±19.06 and 20.96±3.51, respectively. Calves were weaned at 275.09±24.18days; milk yield per day was 9.62±3.09 liter during 2.85±0.83 milking number per day. Similarly, lactation length was estimated 303.98±6.03day and the peak of milk yield was attended at 9.09±2.09 year of age. The number of calf per age was similar estimated 12.66±2.39 calf. Wet-summer was observed a high mortality rate among the other seasons.
Histogenesis of the Abomasum in One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)
E. Salimi Naghani,I. Pousty,M. Abedi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1108.1111
Abstract: Histogenesis of the abomasum was studied in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). According to histodifferentiation of the abomasum in fetuses of the camel, they were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm Crown-Rump Length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days); group III (30-36 cm C-RL; 160-178 days); group IV (36-108 cm C-RL; 178-390 days). At 50 days, the abomasum consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer (pseudostratified), lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The muscularis mucosa was observed from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in the abomasum to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of cardiac region of the abomasum at 160 days. The epithelium of the abomasum was a mixture of simple columnar and pseudostratified at 176 days in the third group. The whole all epithelium was simple columnar in the last group. The abomasal folds in size, number and in thickness of tunica muscularis layer as well increased throughout prenatal life as the abomasum developed. However, its prenatal developing was later than the abomasum in cow, sheep and goat.
Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)
E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days), according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days); group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days); group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days). At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.
Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)
Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined three times (beginning, mid and end) in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn) for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01) higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.
Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)  [PDF]
Karolína Brandlová, Luděk Barto?, Tamara Haberová
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053052
Abstract: Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.
Gross Anatomical Studies on Duodenum of one Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)  [PDF]
T. Althnaian,K.M. Alkhodair,I.F. Albokhadaim,R.O. Ramdan
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2012,
Abstract: The main objective of this research was to study the morphological characters of the camel duodenum. The general features of the camel duodenum were studied macroscopically. The camel duodenum was grayish to white in color. It was divided into two parts i.e., ampulla and thin part which form the long part. The thin part was divided into three parts i.e., descending part, caudal duodenal flexure (transverse part) and ascending part. The duodenum began at the pylorus and ended at the beginning of jejunum. Its mucosa was pink to grayish in color with crossed circular and longitudinal fold at the ampulla and longitudinal fold at the thin part. The length of the duodenum ranged between 1.2-3.1 m. In conclusion, the camel duodenum has distinctive morphological characters. The study provided an excellent potential for further physiological studies on camel duodenum under an arid environment.
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