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DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins,Walter Santa Cruz,Zédna Mara Castro Lucena Vieira,Francisco de Assis Costa Neto
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil). The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level) so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008) was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies) – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.
Demographic transition and transition of urban water consumption in Brazil
Roberto Luiz do Carmo, Ricardo de Sampaio Dagnino, Igor Cavallini Johansen
Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Popula??o , 2014, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-30982014000100010
Abstract: In this paper we discuss that, although the volume of the population is an important aspect to be considered in the relationship between population and environment, there are other factors that may be even more important. From a demographic perspective, for example, details such as composition and spatial distribution of the population are essential. In environmental terms, the style of development and level of consumption are crucial. Brazil is going through a time of important transitions. On the one hand, the demographic transition (decreased levels of mortality and birth rates), is characterized by the rapid decline in total fertility rate, from about 6 children per woman in the 1960s to fewer than 2 children per woman in the late 2000s. On the other hand, there is a consumption transition also in course, discussed here in the relationship between improving the economic situation and increased water consumption, which is caused by the expansion of the supply system in urban areas and by the trend toward growing per capita consumption. Thus, while there has been a significant decrease in population growth rates, water consumption tends to increase as the result of changes in access patterns and consumption levels.
The Study on Urban Water Supply and Consumption of Huabei Plain
华北平原城市用水问题研究

JIN Feng,jun,
金凤君

地理科学进展 , 2000,
Abstract: As is known to all, Huabei plain is a area of water shortage. The situation of water shortage is serious in some urban areas, which affects the regional sustainable development. In this paper, the relationship between urbanization and water use in Huabei plain is studied. The results indicate that the urban water consumption in this area increased very quickly in past two decades, which is key factor resulting in the water shortage. The factors determined the growth of water consumption are different among the cities. According to the water consumption feature, the cities are classified into four types. In order to mitigate the contradiction between water resource supply and water consumption, it is important to adjust the urban industrial structure and develop the techniques for saving water in production. In addition, it is also necessary to establish regional water supply network.
Variations in the Water Quality of an Urban River in Nigeria  [PDF]
F. A. Oginni
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2013.22B014
Abstract: Sango-Ota is the industrial nerve centre of Ogun State in Nigeria. River Atuara is an urbanized river in this town. The aim of this study is to assess the quality of water in the river along its 13 km urbanized stretch within Owode – Ota and Gbenga quarters of Sango – Ota in Ogun State, Nigeria. A study of some physical and chemical analysis was carried out to determine the level of pollution in the river. Total Dissolved Solids, TDS, pH, Colour and Temperature measurements were obtained for nine locations on the 21 km river stretch. Laboratory analyses were carried out at 4 locations along the water course for the following parameters: pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS. Others include Phosphate, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Cadmium, Lead, Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Nickel. Results indicate that the water quality reduces downstream of the urbanized stretch. Some of the level of heavy metals in the river calls for concern. At Owode, the lead content of 0.11 mg/L is too high compared to a maximum of 0.01 mg/l permissible, which can cause cancer. This can interfere with Vitamin D metabolism, and can affect mental development in infants. It is toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Cadmium is below 0.002 which is just below the 0.003 mg/l permitted in Nigeria. Nickel content was 0.046 mg/l between Owode and Ewupe and this is above the maximum permissible level of 0.02 for Nigeria. This has the possibility of carcinogenic health impact. Owode and Ewupe have greater industrial impacts than the other two locations, Igboloye and Gbenga. The trends of each of the 21 parameters from the urbanized stretch of the river have been observed to follow a pattern that can be categorized as similar, mirrored, somersault and composite of mirrored and somersault. More studies were recommended in this direction as well as in determining the locations of factories and industries contributing to the pollution level around Ewupe and their effluent disposal programs will need to be ascertained.
The Impact of Anthropogenic Heat on Formation of Urban Heat Island and Energy Consumption Balance  [PDF]
P. Shahmohamadi,A. I. Che-Ani,K. N. A. Maulud,N. M. Tawil,N. A. G. Abdullah
Urban Studies Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/497524
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island (UHI) and also determines which factors can directly affect energy use in the city. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produced UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It then discusses how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation of UHI effects. It will be concluded by making the three important strategies to minimise the impact of UHI on energy consumption: landscaping, using albedo materials on external surfaces of buildings and urban areas, and promoting natural ventilation. 1. Introduction The urban built environment itself is related to global changes in the increase of urban temperatures, the rate of energy consumption, the increased use of raw materials, pollution, and the production of waste, conversion of agricultural to developed land, loss of biodiversity, and water shortages [1]. It is clear that buildings not designed for high climatic quality use more energy for air conditioning and more electricity for lighting. Moreover, discomfort and inconvenience to the urban population due to high temperatures, wind tunnel effects in streets, and unusual wind turbulence due to the incorrect use of energy. With the concentration of anthropogenic activities into urban areas, a climatic environmental problem, the “urban heat island” (UHI), has emerged. A UHI is a climatic phenomenon in which urban areas have higher air temperature than their rural surroundings as a result of anthropogenic modifications of land surfaces, significant energy use, and its consequent generation of waste heat. Thus, this proves to be an unsustainable factor that leads to excessive energy use for cooling and places the urban population at greater risk of increased morbidity and mortality. According to the above perspective and considering that rapid and huge population growth is expected in the near future, it becomes increasingly important to apply UHI mitigation strategies in order to reduce energy consumption and improve the quality of life with focusing on energy consumption. Thus, this paper investigates the anthropogenic heat factors that produce the UHI and result in the use of significantly increased use of energy. Then, according to the Oke’s energy balance conceptual model, all of the energy which is absorbed by the surface through radiation or from anthropogenic
African and Atlantic short-term climatic variations described from Meteosat water vapor channel  [cached]
L. Picon,S. Fongang,G. Seze,M. Desbois
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Pluriannual series of Meteosat-2 water vapor (WV) images are used to build average maps of decadal and monthly brightness temperatures in the 6.3 μm channel. This processing is applied to all the 3-hourly scenes, clear or cloudy, for July 1983 to July 1987. The ISCCP cloudiness analyses confirm that the warmest spots in the monthly WV images correspond to scenes either clear or covered with low clouds, whereas the coldest areas correspond to scenes where cloud tops above 440 hPa frequently occur. The WV statistics are then used to characterize seasonal and interannual variations of both the ITCZ (InterTropical Convergence Zone) and the warm (dry) areas, corresponding to subtropical subsidence. Thanks mainly to the seasonal variations, relationships between the variations in the ITCZ and in dry subtropical areas can be studied. It is shown that, for the Meteosat sector, a wetter subtropical high troposphere is associated with an enhanced activity of the ITCZ, and vice versa. For this area where the north-south assymetry is large, the negative water vapor feedback previously proposed seems not to occur.
Estimation of the daily water consumption by maize under Atlantic climatic conditions (A Coru a, NW Spain) using Frequency Domain Reflectometry – a case study  [PDF]
R. M. Mestas-Valero,J. M. Mirás-Avalos,E. Vidal-Vázquez
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-709-2012
Abstract: Climatic variables and soil present a high spatio-temporal variability. Evapotranspiration estimations based on climatic variables may be inadequate for assessing soil water content in the root-influenced zone and/or soil water consumption by plants. Other methods may provide better estimates of this water consumption. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil moisture dynamics in the root-influenced zone and to assess the daily water consumption by the crop using Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). The studied site is located in A Coru a (Spain). The study was carried out from June to October in 2008 and 2009, in a maize (Zea mays, L.) field on a silt-clay textured soil. Evapotranspiration was estimated by the Penman-Monteith equation using meteorological data from a station located on the experimental site. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (0–60 cm depth) was hourly monitored each 20 cm (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were performed on days with slight or no rainfall. During the study period, the magnitude of the diurnal soil water loss was more evident in the first layer (0–20 cm depth) and less important in the subsequent soil layers. The greatest consumption occurred between 14 and 19 h, up to 53.64% of the total. Overall, daily water consumption increased significantly with soil water content (p-value < 0.001). In general, water losses from the 0–20 cm soil layer were greater than in subsoil horizons due to maize water-uptake and evaporation. In contrast, water content in the deepest part of the soil profile was close to saturation, even on the driest days of the studied period. Evapotranspiration overestimate maize water requirements as its values were greater than those measured with the probe. In conclusion, FDR allows a more accurate estimation of the soil water balance. Therefore, monitoring soil water content would be useful in the assessment of saturation risks or water stress (drought), thus aiding in the decision making, for instance, in irrigation management. Results from this study may help to improve irrigation practices in humid zones.
Application of PSO-BP Model in Short-Term Prediction of Urban Water Consumption
PSO-BP模型在城市用水量短期预测中的应用

WANG Liang,ZHANG Hong-wei,YUE Lin,LIU Xing,
王 亮
,张宏伟,岳 琳,刘 星

系统工程理论与实践 , 2007,
Abstract: In order to overcome the over-fitting problem and the local minima problem of the BP neural network method,the PSO-BP prediction model concerned on the hourly urban water consumption was developed.The model was based on the analysis of the characters of the hourly urban water consumption data and the particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithms with the global stochastic optimization idea.The experimental results indicated that the average prediction precision increased by 2 per cent,compared to the traditional BP method.It was also shown that this model was faster in computation and had better generalization performance,which proved to be effective in short-term prediction of urban water consumption.
Water Footprints of Urban and Rural Residents’Food Consumption:A Case Study of Changzhou City in the Taihu Lake Basin
城乡居民食物消费的水生态占用分析——以太湖流域上游常州市为例

YUAN Zheng,MIN Qingwen,JIAO Wenjun,LI Jing,
袁正
,闵庆文,焦雯珺,李静

资源科学 , 2012,
Abstract: A multitude of studies use water ecological footprint to examine water resource flows in the production-consumption system,in which the nodes are shaped not only by economics,but also by culture or ecosystem service value.According to the concept of ecological footprint,products and services provided by the water ecosystem in the product life cycle should be fully considered.The conceptual model of water ecological footprint is composed essentially of four parts,i.e.,water of different eco-services in producing,transportation,consumption,and wasting or recycling pro-cesses.The model calculates the quantity of water resources used in the"nature-society-economic system",which appears to be capable of reflecting the reality on how water resources flow in the food consumption.In this study,water ecological footprint of food consumption of urban and rural residents for Changzhou City at the production node was measured by calculating ecosystem servic-es of food production and decontamination.The water resources in the food consumption could be the product of the quantity of food consumption and water ecological footprint of the unit.Pollu-tion footprint from cultivation could be the quotient of the pollution and decontamination capacity of the water.The sum of the two can be taken as the value of water ecological footprint in the pro-ducing phrase of the food consumption life cycle.Results are given as follows.1)Water ecological footprint of food consumption of urban and rural residents in Changzhou City in 2007 was 999.4 m3per capita and 1108.1 m3per capita,respectively.This suggests that the rural residents needed more water to support their food consumption than urban residents,whereas the urban residents were almost 1.5 times water footprints of those in rural area because of excessive population;2) The structure of food consumption,which seemed to be more reasonable in urban areas than in ru-ral areas from the traditional water ecological footprint perspective,had been changed when we at-tempted to take into account other ecosystem services in this study.The structural analysis of the food consumption could not only describe explicitly the contribution of water resources for each ecosystem service during the whole industrial process,but also help with an elevated understanding of water ecological impacts on different cultural and natural environments in urban and rural areas.This water footprint model appears to improve the approaches of water ecological footprint.
Seasonal variations of concentrations and optical properties of water soluble HULIS collected in urban environments  [PDF]
C. Baduel,D. Voisin,J.-L. Jaffrezo
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-4085-2010
Abstract: Major contributors to the organic aerosol include water-soluble macromolecular compounds (e.g. HULISWS: Water Soluble Humic LIke Substances). The nature and sources of HULISWS are still largely unknown. This work is based on a monitoring in six different French cities performed during summer and winter seasons. HULISWS analysis was performed with a selective method of extraction complemented by carbon quantification. UV spectroscopy was also applied for their chemical characterisation. HULISWS carbon represent an important contribution to the organic aerosol mass in summer and winter, as it accounts for 12–22% of Organic Carbon and 34–40% of Water Soluble Organic Carbon. We found strong differences in the optical properties (specific absorbance at 250, 272, 280 nm and E2/E3 ratio) and therefore in the chemical structure between HULISWS from samples of summer- and wintertime. These differences highlight different processes responsible for emissions and formation of HULISWS according to the season, namely biomass burning in winter, and secondary processes in summer. Specific absorbance can also be considered as a rapid and useful indicator of the origin of HULISWS in urban environment.
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