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Septicemia por Shigella flexneri
Herrera,Marco L; Moya,Tatiana; Duarte,Isabel; Guevara,Jaime; Bogantes,Allan;
Revista Médica del Hospital Nacional de Ni?os Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera , 1996,
Abstract: se reporta el primer caso de aislamiento de shigella flexneri en sangre, en costa rica; se hace referencia de lo poco usual de esta hallazgo y énfasis en la resistencia de esta bacteria a los antibióticos orales convencionales, y la necesidad de tratar este caso con una cefalosporina de tercera generación.
Shigella flexneri Sepsis in an Infant  [PDF]
Ju-Bei Yen,Kuei-Wen Chang,Tsu-Lan Wu,An-Jin Kuo
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Shigellosis continues to be an important public health problem in developed countries,since communication in the world village has become more frequent. In addition, this diseaseis difficult to be prevented because only a small number of bacteria are required tocause infection, and it has exhibited steady trends towards multiple drug resistance. Thisreport describes a 7-month-old female infant with Shigella flexneri sepsis presenting initiallywith a high fever, watery diarrhea, and dehydration. She was successfully treated with ceftriaxonefor 7 days. This case illustrates that Shigella should be included in the differentialdiagnosis of sepsis associated with diarrhea particularly in young infants traveling to or livingin an endemic area. The choice of antimicrobial therapy and the optimal duration fortreatment should be carefully evaluated because of the emergence of multidrug-resistantShigella.
Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Air & Water Borne Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2167-7719.1000122
Abstract: Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Shock séptico por Shigella flexneri
Ayala Torales,Santiago; Moreno,Rodolfo P; Araguas,José L; Caprotta,C. Gustavo; Pena,Roberto M;
Archivos argentinos de pediatr?-a , 2006,
Abstract: gastrointestinal infections by shigella flexneri and the neurological compromise caused by its toxine are frequent in developping countries. infections appearing out of the gastrointestinal tract are rare, specially in immunocompetent patients. clinical case: a 4 year old girl was transferred to a pediatric intensive care unit because of a convulsive status with a history of mucous-bloody gastroenteritis and fever for 48 hours. she had been admitted to the emergency room with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and shock. the picture was assumed as septic shock, requiring mechanical respiratory assistance, expansions with crystaloids and inotropics. cultures grew shigella flexneri. the outcome was good. the patient stayed in the intensive care unit for 7 days and then was referred to a pediatric general ward, which she left on the 14th day after admission.
Ceftriaxone resistant Shigella Flexneri, an emerging problem  [cached]
Gupta Soham,Mishra Baijayanti,Muralidharan Sethumadhavan,Srinivasa Hiresave
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Shigellosis is a disease of public health importance in developing countries. It may cause self-limited diarrhea to severe dysentery. Emergence of multi drug resistant (MDR) strains is a growing concern globally. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice for MDR cases. Here, we report a case of MDR Shigella flexneri from an immunocompromised patient. The strain was resistant to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 64 μg/ml], limiting the treatment option. Simultaneously, the strain was also found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). However, it was susceptible to ceftazidime (MIC 4 μg/ml). This is the first case of ceftriaxone resistant Shigella spp. reported from our hospital.
Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms of Shigella flexneri Isolated in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Ishrat J. Azmi, Bijay K. Khajanchi, Fatema Akter, Trisheeta N. Hasan, Mohammad Shahnaij, Mahmuda Akter, Atanu Banik, Halima Sultana, Mohammad A. Hossain, Mohammad K. Ahmed, Shah M. Faruque, Kaisar A. Talukder
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102533
Abstract: Objective To investigate the prevalence and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella species isolated in Bangladesh and to compare with similar strains isolated in China. Methods A total of 3789 Shigella isolates collected from Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of icddr,b, during 2004–2010 were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility. Analysis of plasmids, plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes, PFGE, and sequencing of genes of the quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) were conducted in representative strains isolated in Bangladesh and compared with strains isolated in Zhengding, China. In addition, the role of efflux-pump was studied by using the efflux-pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Results Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Shigella species increased from 0% in 2004 to 44% in 2010 and S. flexneri was the predominant species. Of Shigella spp, ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) strains were mostly found among S. flexneri (8.3%), followed by S. sonnei (1.5%). Within S. flexneri (n = 2181), 14.5% were resistance to ciprofloxacin of which serotype 2a was predominant (96%). MIC of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin were 6–32 mg/L, 8–32 mg/L, and 8–24 mg/L, respectively in S. flexneri 2a isolates. Sequencing of QRDR genes of resistant isolates showed double mutations in gyrA gene (Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn/Gly) and single mutation in parC gene (Ser80Ile). A difference in amino acid substitution at position 87 was found between strains isolated in Bangladesh (Asp87Asn) and China (Asp87Gly) except for one. A novel mutation at position 211 (His→Tyr) in gyrA gene was detected only in the Bangladeshi strains. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was increased by the presence of CCCP indicating the involvement of energy dependent active efflux pumps. A single PFGE type was found in isolates from Bangladesh and China suggesting their genetic relatedness. Conclusions Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella undermines a major challenge in current treatment strategies which needs to be followed up by using empirical therapeutic strategies.
Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report
Gül?in Bayramo?lu,Faruk Ayd?n,Gülay Karagüzel,Mustafa ?mamo?lu
Balkan Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identification of the bacteria and making antibiotic susceptibility testing in these cases should not be overlooked.
Complete genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 5b and comparison with Shigella flexneri 2a
Huan Nie, Fan Yang, Xiaobing Zhang, Jian Yang, Lihong Chen, Jing Wang, Zhaohui Xiong, Junping Peng, Lilian Sun, Jie Dong, Ying Xue, Xingye Xu, Shuxia Chen, Zhijian Yao, Yan Shen, Qi Jin
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-173
Abstract: The Sf8401 chromosome is 4.5-Mb in size, a little smaller than that of Sf301, mainly because the former lacks the SHI-1 pathogenicity island (PAI). Compared with Sf301, there are 6 inversions and one translocation in Sf8401, which are probably mediated by insertion sequences (IS). There are clear differences in the known PAIs between these two genomes. The bacteriophage SfV segment remaining in SHI-O of Sf8401 is clearly larger than the remnants of bacteriophage SfII in Sf301. SHI-1 is absent from Sf8401 but a specific related protein is found next to the pheV locus. SHI-2 is involved in one intra-replichore inversion near the origin of replication, which may change the expression of iut/iuc genes. Moreover, genes related to the glycine-betaine biosynthesis pathway are present only in Sf8401 among the known Shigella genomes.Our data show that the two S. flexneri genomes are very similar, which suggests a high level of structural and functional conservation between the two serotypes. The differences reflect different selection pressures during evolution. The ancestor of S. flexneri probably acquired SHI-1 and SHI-2 before SHI-O was integrated and the serotypes diverged. SHI-1 was subsequently deleted from the S. flexneri 5b genome by recombination, but stabilized in the S. flexneri 2a genome. These events may have contributed to the differences in pathogenicity and epidemicity between the two serotypes of S. flexneri.Shigella species that cause bacillary dysentery or shigellosis are Gram-negative, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobes, and the disease remains a major worldwide health problem. An estimated annual infection of 160 million individuals, with 1.1 million deaths, most of them children under 5 years old in developing countries, occurs with shigellosis [1]. The poor sanitary conditions prevalent in these areas contribute to the spread of the bacteria, and the expense of antibiotics and increasing antibiotic resistance complicate treatment [2].Shigella was r
The Effect of the Potential PhoQ Histidine Kinase Inhibitors on Shigella flexneri Virulence  [PDF]
Xia Cai, Jian Zhang, Mingliang Chen, Yang Wu, Xueqing Wang, Jiayu Chen, Junqin Zhang, Xu Shen, Di Qu, Hualiang Jiang
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023100
Abstract: PhoQ/PhoP is an important two-component system that regulates Shigella virulence. We explored whether the PhoQ/PhoP system is a promising target for new antibiotics against S. flexneri infection. By using a high-throughput screen and enzymatic activity coupled assay, four compounds were found as potential PhoQ inhibitors. These compounds not only inhibited the activity of SF-PhoQc autophosphorylation but also displayed high binding affinities to the SF-PhoQc protein in the Surface Plasmon Resonance response. A S. flexneri cell invasion assay showed that three of these potential PhoQ inhibitors inhibit the invasion of HeLa cells by S. flexneri 9380. In a Mouse Sereny test, mice inoculated with S. flexneri 9380 pre-treated with the potential PhoQ inhibitors 1, 2, 3 or 4 displayed no inflammation, whereas mice inoculated with S. flexneri 9380 alone displayed severe keratoconjunctival inflammation. All four potential PhoQ inhibitors showed no significant cytotoxicity or hemolytic activity. These data suggest that the four potential PhoQ inhibitors inhibited the virulence of S. flexneri and that PhoQ/PhoP is a promising target for the development of drugs against S. flexneri infection.
In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins
Emerson Willer, Renato de Lima, Loreny Giugliano
BMC Microbiology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-4-18
Abstract: Our revealed showed that both adhesion and invasion of Shigella species were inhibited by low concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin and free secretory component. This work also showed that, these proteins bind to superficial and whole-cell Shigella proteins.Our findings suggest that human milk may act inhibiting adhesion and, consequently, invasion of Shigella, thereafter preventing shigellosis in infants.Shigella species are common etiological agents of shigellosis. This illness is responsible for 500,000 deaths of children per year, in developing countries [1]. Clinical symptoms of shigellosis mainly due to acute inflammatory responses, are characterized by the presence of blood and mucus in the stools and intense damage of colonic epithelium. Of the four species of Shigella, three are frequently isolated from dysentery cases: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei [2].For many enteropathogens, adhesion to the host cells, mediated by either fimbrial or afimbrial adhesins, has been shown to be the primordial step of intestinal colonization [3]. However, in Shigella, adhesion structures have not been well characterized and the importance of the adhesion process for colonization and pathogenesis remains unclear [4]. Conversely, the ability to invade epithelial cells has been largely studied in S. flexneri. A 230 kDa plasmid that encodes many invasion proteins (invasion plasmid antigens – Ipas) and proteins of the type III secretion system (Mxi-Spa), was shown to be essential for the invasion process, allowing the entrance in human colonic cells, intracellular multiplication and spreading to adjacent cells [5].Many epidemiological studies have shown that breastfeeding protects infants against intestinal infections [6-9]. Immunoglobulins, mainly the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) [10,11], glycocompounds [10,12] and oligosaccharides [13] have been implicated in the protection conferred by human milk against different enteropathogens.The most abu
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