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Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and an In Situ Hybridization Approach to Detect an “Unidentified” Pathogen  [PDF]
Hirayuki Enomoto,Shin-ichi Inoue,Akio Matsuhisa,Shuhei Nishiguchi
International Journal of Hepatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/634617
Abstract: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Although identifying the pathogen(s) plays a major role in the management of infectious diseases, ascitic fluid cultures often show negative results in patients with clinical signs and symptoms of SBP, and ascitic fluid cell analyses are the gold standard method for diagnosing SBP. SBP is generally diagnosed based on an increased number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the ascitic fluid ( 250/mm3), and the identification of the causal pathogen may not be given consideration. We newly developed an in situ hybridization (ISH) method to provide early and direct evidence of bacterial infection in ascites in patients with SBP. This paper will review the diagnosis of SBP, including our novel approach with ISH method to detect bacterial DNA in SBP ascitic fluid. 1. Introduction Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. SBP is a bacterial infection that occurs in the absence of an evident intra-abdominal and surgically treatable source of infection, such as the perforation or inflammation of intra-abdominal organs [1–4]. Although the precise mechanism(s) underlying the development of SBP have not been fully clarified, bacterial translocation (BT) is believed to be the most important causative factor. Mild BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes is a documented physiological event; however, only a few intestinal bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other Enterobacteriaceae, are able to efficiently translocate from the lumen of the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes [5, 6]. Since the bacterial species with a capacity for BT are also major pathogens of SBP, unphysiological disease-related BT is thought to be significantly associated with the development of SBP. In addition, several conditions frequently noted in cirrhotic patients, including alterations in gut flora, increased intestinal permeability, and a compromised immune system, have been reported to be involved in disease-related BT and the subsequent onset of SBP [6]. The prevalence of SBP in cirrhotic hospitalized patients with ascites ranges from 10% to 30% [1, 2, 7]. Although the mortality rate was initially reported to exceed 90%, the prognosis has improved with early diagnosis and treatment [8]. The diagnosis of SBP is established based on positive ascitic fluid bacterial cultures and the detection of an elevated absolute fluid polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count in the ascites (>250/mm3)
M. Nikaeen ? A. Pejhan ? M. Jalali
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LMX broth as an enzymatic assay with the standard methods multiple tube fermentation technique and presence–absence test, for the detection of indicator coliforms in drinking water samples. In addition, the potential effect of water quality on the microbial detection method was assayed through measurement of some physicochemical parameters. From the 50 drinking water samples tested, 8 (16%) and 7 (14%) contained total coliforms and E.coli as indicated by all three techniques. Although on average the LMX recovered more total coliforms and E.Coli numbers comparing to multiple tube fermentation, but there was no significant difference. A significant difference existed between the level of residual chlorine for positive and negative samples. In conclusion, enzymatic assay showed a rapid and less labor method, allowing the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E.coli. The method is particularly useful in the early warning of fecal pollution of drinking water.
Evaluation of Petrifilm? EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water
Beloti, Vanerli;Souza, Juliana Aparecida de;Barros, Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira;Nero, Luís Augusto;Mattos, Marcos Rodrigues de;Gusm?o, Viviane Vieira;Moraes, Luciane Bilia de;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822003000400002
Abstract: petrifilm? ec and hs were compared to the mpn method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and e. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). for water in natura, petrifilm? hs and ec showed good correlation with mpn method. in chlorinated water (< 20 col/100 ml and negatives) the agreement was low. for e.coli enumeration, petrifilm? ec showed a good correlation with mpn method. the results indicated that petrifilm? ec and hs are accurate to enumerate coliforms and e. coli in water when the expected counts are higher than 20/100 ml.
Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  [PDF]
Sadia Alam, Samina Khalil, Najma Ayub, Abida Bibi, Beena Saeed, Salma Khalid, Sumaira Siddiq
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.512158

Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual). About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g). Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g). E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.

Li Wang,Wei You,Wei Huang,Jue-Chao Jiang
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808001669
Abstract: In the title compound, C17H16O2, a dimethyl acetal of 9-anthraldehyde, the anthracene skeleton is planar and the two methoxy groups attached to the C atom at position 9 of the aromatic ring system are located above and below the ring system.
Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk
Beloti, Vanerli;Barros, Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira;Nunes, Maurício Pinto;Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de;Nero, Luís Augusto;Souza, Juliana Aparecida de;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822002000100010
Abstract: readycult? - lmx is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. it is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. the goal of this paper was to study the use of readycult? - lmx to detect total coliform and e. coli in milk. one hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in londrina, pr, brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (mpn) method using brilliant green bile lactose broth (2%) (brila) and readycult? - lmx. the readycult? - lmx test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. there was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224) and for e. coli (r: 0.8603). the two methods yielded similar results, but readycult? - lmx was easier to use. in addition, results were available as early as 24h.
Sukhodub LB,Osolodchenko TP,Yanovska AA,Radchenko ЕА
Annals of Mechnikov's Institute , 2013,
Abstract: In this work it was studied the antibacterial properties of coatings based on HA, with Chitosan and silver ions additions, produced by substrates termodeposition method from aqueous solutions with varying concentrations of Chitosan (0.025 and 0.1 g/l) and silver (1 mg/l) as the antimicrobial components as well as three-part cover, consisting of a film of Chitosan, HA and silver. Study on antibacterial properties of composite coatings on the pathogen E.coli ATCC 25922 was held by Spectrophotometric measurement and analysis of optical density of suspensions, containing samples. 3 series of measurements data were averaged. The results showed that the concentration of antimicrobial components have indicated a bacteriostatic effect of coatings on the culture of E. coli AS ATCC 25922 in physiological solution at a temperature of 37 °C. The most effective was the three-part cover consisting of a film of chitosan, HA and silver.
Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  [PDF]
M. Jakir Hosen,Dilara Islam Sarif,M. Masuder Rahman,Md. Abul Kalam Azad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comparatively newer two-taka notes showed that 43±3% were contaminated with total coliforms and 5±2% were with fecal coliforms, suggesting the notion that more handled taka notes were contaminated more intensely even by fecal coliforms. Ten taka notes also represented the same pattern of results as two-taka notes, indicating that taka notes may carry enteric pathogens. This study also revealed that porsaline paper notes were easily vulnerable to coliforms contamination whereas polymer paper notes were almost free from coliforms suggesting that polymer paper notes are safer to use than porsaline paper notes.
Ultrasonic Technology Effectiveness in Total Coliforms Disinfection of Water  [PDF]
A.H. Mahvi,M.H. Dehghani,F. Vaezi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The effect of ultrasonic upon the destruction of total coliforms has been studied in this research. Also, the impact of power intensity and ultrasonic frequency on the germicidal effectiveness of sonification has been explored. The results obtained from the work carried out have shown that ultrasonic can be used effectively for water disinfection and increase in percent kill for coliforms may occur with increase in contact time to ultrasonic in the 42 kHz. These results suggest that ultrasonic in this frequency is capable to some degree in inactivating total coliforms in water.
Bacteriological examination of drinking water in Burdwan, India with reference to coliforms
SN Chatterjee, D Das, M Roy, S Banerjee, P Dey, T Bhattacharya, G Chandra
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Most probable number (MPN) test was done to detect the coliform in water samples collected from mobile vendors, sweet shops and tap water supplied from Burdwan municipality. The study revealed that the number of coliforms was very high (1600) in water samples collected from mobile vendors. The bacteria were identified as Escherichia coli. Bacteriological examination of water samples collected from different sources showed that the water of mobile vendors and sweet shops of Burdwan market area was not potable while the municipal tap water was found to be safe for drinking.
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