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Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research
Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo,Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal Sasso
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support.We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1) Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2) Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.
Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  [cached]
Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo,Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal Sasso
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1) Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2) Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.
Navigating the Process of Ethical Approval: A methodological note
Eileen Carey, RNID, BSc. (hons), MSc.
Grounded Theory Review : an International Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Classic grounded theory (CGT) methodology is a general methodology whereby the researcher aims to develop an emergent conceptual theory from empirical data collected by the researcher during the research study. Gaining ethical approval from relevant ethics committees to access such data is the starting point for processing a CGT study. The adoption of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UNESCO, 2005) is an indication of global consensus on the importance of research ethics. There is, however, a wide variation of health research systems across countries and disciplines (Hearnshaw 2004). Institutional Research Boards (IRB) or Research Ethics Committees (REC) have been established in many countries to regulate ethical research ensuring that researchers agree to, and adhere to, specific ethical and methodological conditions prior to ethical approval being granted. Interestingly, both the processes and outcomes through which the methodological aspects pertinent to CGT studies are agreed between the researcher and ethics committee remain largely ambiguous and vague. Therefore, meeting the requirements for ethical approval from ethics committees, while enlisting the CGT methodology as a chosen research approach, can be daunting for novice researchers embarking upon their first CGT study.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly: a clinical and ethical perspective
Ana L Huerta-Alardín,Manuel Guerra-Cantú,Joseph Varon,
Ana L. Huerta-Alardín
,Manuel Guerra-Cantú,Joseph Varon

老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: The daily practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in elderly patients has brought up the attention of outcome research and resource allocation. Determinants to predict survival have been well identified. There has been empirical evidence that CPR is of doubtful utility in the geriatric population, more studies have showed controversial data. Sometimes situations in which CPR needs to be given in the elderly, causes stress to healthcare providers, due to lack of communication of the patient's wishes and the belief that it will not be successful. It is of importance to state that we have the duty to identify on time the patients that will most likely benefit from CPR, and find out the preferences of the same. Whenever it is possible to institute these guidelines, we will avoid patient suffering.
Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Issues  [PDF]
Kaltrina Kelmendi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.47080
Abstract:

Research on violence against women has improved and provides important information on patterns, prevalence, risk and consequences of this major threat to female well-being. Since the identification of violence against women as a problem worthy of study in 1970, evident progress has been made in understanding physical, psychological and sexual violence against women. However, while methodological improvements appear in later studies, the literature review shows many limitations and restrictions when conducting research on violence against women. The objective of this paper is to review the methodological issues that arise when studying violence against women. The paper focuses first on the history of research on violence against women, by elaborating on each perspective. Second, the paper identifies and describes methodological difficulties when researching violence against women such as methodology, operational definitions of violence, sampling frame and risk factors related to violence. The paper also elaborates on major ethical principles that should be considered and respected when researching violence against women. Finally, the paper recommends certain changes that should be made in order to improve future research on the subject.

Reviews of Functional MRI: The Ethical Dimensions of Methodological Critique  [PDF]
James Anderson, Ania Mizgalewicz, Judy Illes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042836
Abstract: Neuroimaging studies involving human subjects raise a range of ethics issues. Many of these issues are heightened in the context of neuroimaging research involving persons with mental health disorders. There has been growing interest in these issues among legal scholars, philosophers, social scientists, and as well as neuroimagers over the last decade. Less clear, however, is the extent to which members of the neuroimaging community are engaged with these issues when they undertake their research and report results. In this study, we analyze the peer-reviewed review literature involving fMRI as applied to the study of mental health disorders. Our hypothesis is that, due to the critical orientation of reviews, and the vulnerability of mental health population, the penetrance of neuroethics will be higher in the review literature in this area than it is in the primary fMRI research literature more generally. We find that while authors of reviews do focus a great deal of attention on the methodological limitations of the studies they discussed, contrary to our hypothesis, they do not frame concerns in ethical terms despite their ethical significance. We argue that an ethics lens on such discussion would increase the knowledge-value of this scholarly work.
Obstacles to researching the researchers: A case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials
Joanne E McKenzie, G Peter Herbison, Paul Roth, Charlotte Paul
Trials , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-28
Abstract: In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons.In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions.Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research.Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential benefit of this research in the broader research community, and those who sit on ethics committees, is perhaps needed. In addition, changes to the ethical review process which involve separation between those who review proposals to undertake methodological research using ethics applications, and those with responsibility for reviewing ethics applications for trials, should be considered. Finally, we contend that the research
Effects of different types of feedback on cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills among nursing students–a pilot study  [cached]
Pia Hedberg,Kristina L?m?s
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v3n10p84
Abstract: Background: During the last 20 years there have been different approaches to teaching nurse students cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Receiving CPR with compressions of adequate depth and frequency, and ventilations of adequate volume improves the chance of survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different types of feedback on CPR skills among nursing students. Methods: A pilot study with an explorative approach including 30 nurse students. Students was randomized in three groups; 1) instructor-led training followed by self-training without feedback, 2) self-training with visual graphic feedback, and 3) self-training with voice advisory manikin (VAM). Outcomes were correct compression deep, frequency, hand position and release, and correct ventilation volume and flow. If performance was correct to 70%, students were considered to have reached approved level. The students also answered questions about theoretical knowledge about CPR. Results: In technical skills, group 2 had significant higher level of correct ventilation volume compared with the other group. Both group 1 and 3 did not reach the level of 70% correct performance. Group 1 and 2 had significant higher level of correct deep of compressions compared with group 3 which did not reach the 70% level. There was no difference in performance between groups in other parameters. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that visual graphic feedback is promising and seemed to be more effective than self-training with voice advisory manikin and instructor-led training with followed self-training without feedback.
A psychological autopsy study of suicide among Inuit in Nunavut: methodological and ethical considerations, feasibility and acceptability
Eduardo Chachamovich,Jack Haggarty,Margaret Cargo,Jack Hicks
International Journal of Circumpolar Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.20078
Abstract: Introduction. The increasing global prevalence of suicide has made it a major public health concern. Research designed to retrospectively study suicide cases is now being conducted in populations around the world. This field of research is especially crucial in Aboriginal populations, as they often have higher suicide rates than the rest of the country. Objective. This article presents the methodological aspects of the first psychological autopsy study on suicide among Inuit in Nunavut. Qaujivallianiq Inuusirijauvalauqtunik (Learning from lives that have been lived) is a large case-control study, including all 120 cases of suicide by Inuit that occurred in Nunavut between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2006. The article describes the research design, ethical considerations and strategies used to adapt the psychological autopsy method to Nunavut Inuit. Specifically, we present local social and cultural issues; data collection procedures; and the acceptability, reliability and validity of the method. Method. A retrospective case-control study using the psychological autopsy approach was carried out in 22 communities in Nunavut. A total of 498 individuals were directly interviewed, and medical and correctional charts were also reviewed. Results. The psychological autopsy method was well received by participants as they appreciated the opportunity to discuss the loss of a family member or friend by suicide. During interviews, informants readily identified symptoms of psychiatric disorders, although culture-specific rather than clinical explanations were sometimes provided. Results suggest that the psychological autopsy method can be effectively used in Inuit populations.
Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California  [PDF]
Laura Meehan August,John B. Faust,Lara Cushing,Lauren Zeise,George V. Alexeeff
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9093069
Abstract: Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure.
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