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Research on Traveling Routes Problems Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm  [PDF]
Zhanchang Yu, Sijia Zhang, Siyong Chen, Bingxing Liu, Shiqi Ye
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B2109

This paper studies how to obtain a reasonable traveling route among given attractions. Toward this purpose, we propose an objective optimization model of routes choosing, which is based on the improved Ant Colony Algorithm. Furthermore, we make some adjustment in parameters in order to improve the precision of this algorithm. For example, the inspired factor has been changed to get better results. Also, the ways of searching have been adjusted so that the traveling routes will be well designed to achieve optimal effects. At last, we select a series of attractions in Beijing as data to do an experimental analysis, which comes out with an optimum route arrangement for the travelers; that is to say, the models we propose and the algorithm we improved are reasonable and effective.

Performance of Stochastically Intermittent Sensors in Detecting a Target Traveling between Two Areas  [PDF]
Hongyun Wang, Hong Zhou
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.62021
Abstract: We study the problem of detecting a target that moves between a hiding area and an operating area over multiple fixed routes. The research is carried out with one or more cookie-cutter sensors with stochastic intermission, which turn on and off stochastically governed by an on-rate and an off-rate. A cookie-cutter sensor, when it is on, can detect the target instantly once the target comes within the detection radius of the sensor. In the hiding area, the target is shielded from being detected. The residence times of the target, respectively, in the hiding area and in the operating area, are exponentially distributed and are governed by rates of transitions between the two areas. On each travel between the two areas and in each travel direction, the target selects a route randomly according to a probability distribution. Previously, we analyzed the simple case where the sensors have no intermission (i.e., they stay on all the time). In the current study, the sensors are stochastically intermittent and are synchronized (i.e., they turn on or off simultaneously). This happens when all sensors are affected by the same environmental factors. We derive asymptotic expansions for the mean time to detection when the on-rate and off-rate of the sensors are large in comparison with the rates of the target traveling between the two areas. Based on the mean time to detection, we evaluate the performance of placing the sensor(s) to monitor various travel route(s) or to scan the operating area.
Adaptive e-Learning in area operating and database systems
Janáková Milena
Technológia vzdelávania , 2010,
Abstract: Students and other people interested in the area of operating and database systems have to their disposal specialized books, manuals, and web pages. Theuser’s problem is orientation oneself in the themes and practical implementation of new methods and products. The purpose of education is to search useful methods and aspects for supporting optimal knowledge in multicultural and global societies based on multidimensional methodology. Effective aspects are visualisation and the use of interactive elements in presentations and simulations. Communication is important from the shared experiences point of view and special themed knowledge. E-learning requires the same. Optimal integration of interactive elements into communication with students is helped by simulation the real situation with Petri Nets. Adaptation the static offer of education materials by dynamic and interactive elements is not automatic. In the way of searching a well-balanced method is the inspirational access for contact mapping in a study by IBM called “Advocacy in the customer focused enterprise”. Specific metrics are important for controlling the seriousness and prestige of given firms. E-learning also constitutes prestige of a given university, their educators, and others employees. The recommendation is that students must experience interest, topicality, plasticity, and efficiency. Students are also clients; clients of e-learning.
Air pollution in the area of operating siderite plant in Ni ná Slaná  [PDF]
Bobro Milan,Han?ulák Jozef,Brehuv Ján,Ge?perová Dana
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 1999,
Abstract: The dust deposition analyses the imission load in the area of Siderite Plant Ni ná Slaná has been carried out for tens of years. In the present time the observation of freshly fallen snow quality has begun to be realized with the aim to determine the collected pollutants in the snow. The pollutants have the municipal as well as the industrial origin. The range of plant emission by the chemical data processing and by their comparision with the dust deposition was investigated. Finally, the imission action of the plant on its wider surroundings was found out by this way.
Pedestrian routes and urban requalification: the Montesanto area in Naples Percorsi pedonali e riqualificazione urbana: l’area di Montesanto a Napoli
Carmela Gargiulo,Adriana Galderisi,Andrea Ceudech
TeMA : Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment , 2008, DOI: 10.6092/1970-9870/54
Abstract: This paper illustrates a project targeted to the recovery of the area of Montesanto, included in the historical city of Naples, through a route network devoted to a prevailing pedestrian use. At present, relevant urban equipments are located in the investigated area; moreover, this area represents one of the main junction of the urban railway network, the shunting point of relevant flows of users either towards the Greek-Roman part of the historical city or towards the directional area and the monumental core. Furthermore, in the above-said area, interventions addressed to the recovery of the Cumana station and of the square in front of the station have been recently carried out. The project proposal – which is part of a wider Plan for Protected Pedestrian Mobility in the historical city of Naples - aims at fostering the co-existence, under security conditions, between high intense pedestrian flows and car flows (local users and emergency accessibility), apart form assuring the implementation of a requalification process which, starting from the pedestrian network, would affect the overall area. In detail the proposal, grounding on in-depth analyses of the features both of the urban context and of the individual roads and squares to be included in the pedestrian network, provides some guidelines for the reorganization of the heterogeneous activities and flows along the network and for the consequent redefinition of its spatial features. Il contributo illustra una proposta progettuale per la riqualificazione di un’area del centro storico di Napoli attraverso la realizzazione di una rete di percorsi a prevalente fruizione pedonale. L’area di studio, il nucleo di Montesanto, è attualmente sede di rilevanti attrezzature urbane e si caratterizza quale nodo primario del trasporto urbano su ferro, punto di smistamento di rilevanti flussi di utenza sia verso il nucleo della città greco-romana sia verso l’area direzionale e il centro monumentale. La proposta progettuale – che si inquadra in un più ampio Piano per la Mobilità Pedonale Protetta nella città storica di Napoli - è volta a favorire la coesistenza, in condizioni di sicurezza, tra flussi pedonali ad elevata intensità e flussi automobilistici (utenza locale e accessibilità di emergenza), oltre che garantire l’innesco di un processo di riqualificazione che, a partire dagli archi e dai nodi della rete pedonale, investa l’area nel suo complesso. Più specificamente, a partire da una approfondita analisi delle caratteristiche di contesto e delle peculiarità dei singoli assi e nodi della rete viaria, la propos
Analysis of Benzene Exposure Levels on Commuters Traveling within the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica  [PDF]
Wendy Villalobos-Gonzalez, Germain Esquivel-Hernandez, Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo, José Leonardo Corrales-Salazar, Juan Valdes-Gonzalez
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.41005
Abstract: This study reports the benzene exposure levels of commuters traveling within the metropolitan area of Costa Rica using personal cars, buses, and urban trains. 47 in-vehicle samples were collected in the 2014 wet season under three different driving conditions: rush hour traffic, normal traffic and weekends. Samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed using 75 μm carboxenpolydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Additionally, duplicate samples were collected on adsorption tubes filled with Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and GC-FID. Results indicate that travelling in cars and buses under rush hour conditions exposes commuters to statistically equal average benzene concentration of 48.7 and 51.6 μg/m3, respectively. Average benzene levels in urban trains (33.0 μg/m3) were measured only during morning rush hours. Greater benzene levels in buses than personal cars concentrations may be attributable to the immersion of traffic-related emission within the bus cabins. Factors, such as the driving pattern, the number of vehicles on the route, the road infrastructure, and the prevalence of gasoline-fueled vehicles in Costa Rica, may increase ambient benzene concentrations. Benzene levels inside car cabins reported in this study are in the range of those reported in other urban areas; however, the corresponding concentrations inside buses and urban trains (rush hour only) are higher than previously published exposure levels.
Data Hiding In Binary Images  [cached]
Rupali D Kasar Kasar
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we will overview use of data hiding techniques in binary images. The interest in data hiding has raised with the recent activity in digital copyright protection schemes. The embedding capacity is the major concern in a data-hiding scheme. Several methods for hiding data in specific types of binary images have been proposed. Digital watermarking techniques are used to address digital rights management, protect information, and conceal secrets. This paper will review recent developments in data hiding techniques of binary images.
Information Hiding and Countermeasures

WU Shu-Feng HUANG Liu-Sheng LU Ji-Jun CHEN Guo-Liang,

计算机科学 , 2003,
Abstract: Information Hiding Technology has a long history. With the development of Digital Technology, it has become a newly evolved discipline and a hot research area. Since the first Information Hiding Workshop held in 1996,the technology has been widely applied to areas such as multimedia .signal processing and protection of software Intellectual Property,but the research work in secure communication is relatively fewer. Based on success of developing a steganography tool for communication, this article summarizes the current progress in the research of Information Hiding Technology systematically, and analyzes possible countermeasures against various Information Hiding techniques.
Roots and Routes
Ann-Dorte Christensen, Sune Qvotrup Jensen
Nordic Journal of Migration Research , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10202-011-0013-1
Abstract: This article is about transnational migrants, how they construct belonging to ‘new’ places where they have arrived, and how the feelings of belonging to their places of origin change when they go back. The theoretical part of the article outlines the relationship between migration and belonging arguing that there is a dynamic interplay between roots and routes in people's lives. The empirical point of departure is narratives about roots and routes by ethnic minorities settled in Aalborg East, an underprivileged neighbourhood in northern Denmark. One of the main findings is a gap between the national exclusion of transnational migrants marked as ‘strangers’ and border figures of the nation and a relatively high degree of local belonging to the neighbourhood. This is followed by an in-depth empirical analysis inspired by Alfred Schutz's distinction between the stranger and the homecomer. A somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country.
Quantum Data Hiding  [PDF]
David P. DiVincenzo,Debbie W. Leung,Barbara M. Terhal
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We expand on our work on Quantum Data Hiding -- hiding classical data among parties who are restricted to performing only local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC). We review our scheme that hides one bit between two parties using Bell states, and we derive upper and lower bounds on the secrecy of the hiding scheme. We provide an explicit bound showing that multiple bits can be hidden bitwise with our scheme. We give a preparation of the hiding states as an efficient quantum computation that uses at most one ebit of entanglement. A candidate data hiding scheme that does not use entanglement is presented. We show how our scheme for quantum data hiding can be used in a conditionally secure quantum bit commitment scheme.
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